Organs of Speech

Organs of Speech
The Organs of Speech
Two Speech process
formulating the concept at a linguistic level = in the brain
Physiological (or) Articulatory
making certain movements and produce particular patterns of sounds
Physical or acoustic
The movement of organs of speech creates disturbances in the air
Other organs
perception of vibrations in the air in the listener's ear drum
Ear diagram
The decoding of sounds
Information Processing
Speech Mechanism
1. The respiratory system
The most usual source of energy for vocal activity is provided by an air-stream expelled from the lungs
Bronchial tubes
windpipe or trachea
2. The phonatory system
1. Larynx or voice-box
2. Vocal cards (Vocal folds)
Two folds of ligament and elastic tissue
3. Glottis
The opening between the vocal cords
3. The articulatory system
1. Nose
2. Lips
3. Mouth
1. Tongue
2. Teeth
The roof of the mouth
1. Alveolar or Teeth palate
2.Hard palate
3. Soft palate (velum)
4. Uvula
4. The soft Palate (velum)
Three group of body organs
Air-stream mechanisms
1. Pulmonic air-stream mechanisms
Consists of the lungs and the respiratory muscles
2. Glottalic air-stream mechanisms
a) Open Glottis
Air can pass through them quite freely
Voiceless or Breathed
Air can pass through them quite freely
b) Glottis in vibration
The opening and closing action
100-150 times in a man's voice
200-325 times in a woman's voice
Constitutes the process called "phonation"
c) Closed glottis
Glottal stop Eg: cough, hiccups
d) Narrowed glottis
Whisper: soft hissing noise
3. Velaric air-stream mechanisms
Velum (soft palate) Eg: click
1. Nasalized sounds
Air can escape through nose and mouth
2. Lowered soft palate
3. Raised soft palate
Used to pull air in
b) Ingressive
Used to push air out
a) Egressive