Periodic Table Concepts

Periodic Table Concepts
inner transition metals
History
Periodic Law
Classification
halogens
alkaline earth metals
alkali metals
noble gases
transition metals
- the elements on the two rows which appear
underneath the main body of the periodic
table
- These elements are very reactive and very unstable.
Often these elements can only be made in a
laboratory and they they usually have radioactive
properties
- Some examples of this are Cerium, Dysprosium,
Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Holmium,
Lutetium
- The two scientists who had the biggest
impact were Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar
Meyer.
- Mendeleev arranged the elements in his
periodic table in order of increasing atomic
mass
- Meyer used atomic weights to arrange 28
elements into 6 families that bore similar chemical
and physical characteristics, leaving a blank for
an
- example: every element in a group has the same
number of valance electrons, and each element will
have a larger mass and number than the element
before it.
- basically it states that elements follow a
pattern which controls their
characteristics
- This is the principle that states that properties of
the elements recur periodically as their atomic
number increases.
- elements can be classifies by their mass, number
of protons, number of neutrons, and common
characteristics
- classes can be separated by the number of
valance electrons that they have, this effects their
characteristics
- classifications include number of valance
electrons, types of groups and periods, and
atomic numbers
- Non-metallic elements
- Solid Halogens: Astatine and Iodine
- Liquid Halogens: Bromine
- Gas: Fluorine and Chlorine
- They are reactive, electropositive, divalent metals,
and form basic oxides that react with water to
form comparatively insoluble hydroxides.
- This is are the second group
- beryllium, magnesium, calcium,
strontium, barium, and radium
- They are found on group one, which is
the far left column on the periodic
table.
- They are very reactive, electropositive,
monovalent metals forming strongly alkaline
hydroxides.
- Some of which include sodium,
potassium, rubidium, cesium, and
francium
- They were long believed to be totally unreactive
but compounds of xenon, krypton, and radon are
now known.
- They are the the farthest most
right group on the periodic table.
- Some noble gases include helium,
neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and
radon
- there are many different transitions metals but
some examples are iron, manganese, chromium,
and copper.
- These metals take up multiple groups on the
periodic table and can be found in columns 4
through 12.
- Chemically they show variable valence and a
strong tendency to form coordination compounds,
and many of their compounds are colored.
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