Operating System and Utility Programs

Operating System
and
Utility Programs
Operating Systems
Summary
Server Operating Systems
Operating System Functions
Stand-Alone Operating Systems
Embedded Operating Systems
Utility Programs
System Software
Operating System Functions
Objectives Overview
- Define system software and identify the two types of system software
- Describe the functions of an operating system
- Summarize the startup process on a personal computer
- Summarize the features of several stand-alone operating systems
- Briefly describe various server operating systems
- Summarize the features of several embedded operating systems
- Explain the purpose of several utility programs
- Cold boot
- Warm boot
- Operating systems
- Utility Programs
- A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks
- A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management
- Displaying a list of files
- Organizing files in folders
- Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files and folders
- Creating shortcuts
- A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify
- An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file
- An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files
- A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files
- Downloaded program files
- Temporary Internet files
- Deleted files
- Unused program files
- A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
- Defragmenting
- A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium
- A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form
- A screen saver causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no activity occurs for a specified time
- A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions
- A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer negatively
- A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network
- A Trojan horse hides within or looks like a legitimate program
- An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses
- Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user
- A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs
- Adware displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window
- An adware remover is a program that detects and deletes adware
- Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed
- Web filters
- Anti-spam programs
- Phishing filters
- Pop-up blockers
- A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s)
- Compressing files frees up room on the storage media
- Two types of compression
- Lossy
- Lossless
- Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files
- Can be uncompressed
- A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer
- Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable optical disc
- A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance
- An embedded operating system resides on a ROM
chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device
- Windows Embedded CE
- Windows Mobile
- Palm OS
- iPhone OS
- Blackberry
- Embedded Linux
- Symbian OS
- A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on
a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device
- Windows Vista
- Mac OS X
- UNIX
- Linux
- Windows Vista is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating
system to date and is available in multiple editions
- Windows Vista Home Basic
- Windows Vista Home Premium
- Windows Vista Ultimate
- Windows Vista Business
- Windows Vista provides programs such as
- Windows Firewall
- Windows Messenger
- Windows Media Player
- Windows Sidebar
- The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use
- Latest version is Mac OS X
- UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s
- Linux is an open-source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system
- A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts
- You can boot from a boot disk
- A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computer
- An operating system includes various shut down options
- Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all
unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state
- Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before
removing power from the computer
- A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
- With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual images
- With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions
- How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity
- Single user and multiuser
- Single tasking and multitasking
- Foreground and background
- Preemptive multitasking
- Multiprocessing
- Memory management optimizes the use of RAM
- Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAM
- The operating system determines the order in which tasks are processed
- A driver is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device
- Plug and Play automatically configures new devices as you install them
- Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connections
- A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices
- Operating systems often provide users with the capability of
- Managing files
- Searching for files
- Viewing images
- Securing a computer
- Uninstalling programs
- Cleaning up disks
- Defragmenting disks
- Diagnosing problems
- Backing up files and disks
- Setting up screen savers
- Automatic update automatically provides updates to the program
- Some operating systems are designed to work with a server on a network
- A server operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network
- A network administrator uses the server operating system to
- Add and remove users, computers, and other devices
- Install software and administer network security
- Each user has a user account
- A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user
- A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user name
- Windows Server 2008
- UNIX
- Linux
- Solaris
- Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003
- Part of the Windows Server 2008 family
- Multiple editions
- Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology
- Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources
- Definition of an operating system
- Functions common to most operating systems
- Variety of stand-alone operating systems, server operating systems, and embedded operating systems
- Several utility programs
- An operating
system (OS)
is a set of
programs
containing
instructions
that work
together to
coordinate all
the activities
among
computer
hardware
resources
- Start and shut down a computer
- Provide a user interface
- Manage programs
- Manage memory
- Coordinate tasks
- Configure devices
- Establish an Internet connection
- Monitor performance
- Provide utilities
- Automatically update
- Control a network
- Administer security
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