Diana Laurillard - Teaching as a Design Science
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Teaching as a Design Science
What it takes to teach
Factors influencing the design of teaching
There must be coherence between the learner's and theteacher's expected outcomes. The teacher caninfluence those goals by designing his teaching contextproperly.
Design begins with the teacher'saims for the course. They areinfluenced by:
Expected students' skills
Time available and other logistics
Design continues with expectedlearning outcomes and curriculumrequirements.
Here again, students'expectations and interestsinfluence design.
Learning and assessment activities aredesigned taking into account the previoussteps.
The teaching learning process is iterative:feedback loops are a constant all over themodel.
This links to the &quot;reflective practice&quot;chapter at the beginning of thecourse.
Even though the proposed modelcoincides with most of the literaturecovering the planning/design of teachinglearningenvironments, most courseproposals in HE do not include analysesof student's learning needs.
Approaches to designing for learning
1st clarification: learning CANNOT be designed.You can try to design in order to make learningpossible, which is different.
Common problem within&quot;instructional design&quot; literature.
Overwhelming variety ofmodels, diagrams,approaches andalternatives. (Thesupermarket paralysis).
PLUS: there is little consensus within them.Some authors stand out (see page 67), butthere is still lack of common threads.
Entwistle and Smith (2002, cited by Laurillard) made asimilar critique: Models seem to contradict each other andmay even appear unrealistic and detached of actualclassroom contexts.
Attempts to offer guidelines on instructional design have, so far, departed from thepedagogical concepts of learning (Ch 4). The author will continue that approach.
In order to assist the learner in completinghis learning cycles, the teacher is suggestedto:
Align teacher learner goals
Set goals that use conceptsavailable to the pupil.
Clarify concepts to easeknowledge organization.
Build an appropriate environment
Monitor the building and use of concepts
Offer meaningful feedback
Aligning goals, activities and assessment
The learning aims have to make senseto the students, they have to bepurposeful.
To achieve this, Ausubelsuggests (read p68)
Begin with a comment thatrelates to the learner's ownexperience.
Use an intriguing question for whichthe instruction serves as anexplanation.
Dewey's more radicalapproach (1938)
Goals should be discussedand negotiated with the learner.
Content negotiation is hardbelow Phd levels.
There must be internal coherence among what youwant for a course, what you teach, the way you teach it,and the activities and assessment strategiesimplemented.
Alignment is unobjectionable.The question is HOW?
So far, teachers have usedlanguage trying to addressalignment.
Verbs like &quot;argue&quot;, &quot;reflect&quot;,&quot;analyze&quot;, &quot;explain&quot; arepervasive within attempts tobuild an aligned lesson plan.
The question remainspostponed, not answered.
Teachers must look at the wholepicture when trying to addressalignment.
Goals KnowledgeAction FeedbackModulation
If the teacher reflectsupon the wholeprocess, the alignmentwill not be left for thestudent to guess.
Alignment is unobjectionable.The question is HOW?
Monitoring Alternative Conceptions
Curriculum design implies an awareness of theappropriate sequence of concepts andknowledge. FQ's
Which concepts are needed?
Which misconceptions are frequent?
How difficult/easy is it to grasp?
What do students know?
One main teaching principle drawn from &quot;Howpeople learn&quot; (Bransford, Brown and Cocking,2003, Cited by Laurillard, 2012:71)
1. Teachers should use the students'previous knowledge as a departurepoint.
This requires us to:
Inquire their thinking.
Generate spaces where theirthoughts can surface.
Design assessment toaddress understanding.
Work out with preconceptions(refinement, replacement)
Other theorists and experimentsagree with this principle. (pp 7172)
Conclusion: Rather than homogenizing pupil's conceptions intohis own, the teacher should monitor alternative conceptions.This requires us to go beyond priorconceptions. (Laurillard,2012:72)
Scaffolding Theorygenerated Practice
The student should be allowedspaces to practice, selfassess andimprove.
This requires teachers to:
Deconstruct complex actions tomake them more accessible to thelearner.
Step by step processes easeactions and triggersunderstanding
Provide an environment that promotespractice, testing and improvement ofactions.
Time is a crucial element topractice, specially with complexconcepts.
Offer meaningful feedback to their actions.
How does the learner's outcome differfrom the initial expectations (idealsolution)?
An ideal type of the work to beperformed can be offered as areference.
Extrinsic feedback is critical to aid a pupilattain the expected aims and improve itspractice.
Intrinsic feedback lies within the taskitself, encouraging autonomouslearning.
Meaningful feedback thatencourages improvement faces 2problems
The teacher must be careful to ensure that thestudent faces the complexity of the task.Otherwise, feedback is meaningless.
The size of the groups makes it difficult for ateacher to focus his attention and feedback in theindividual learner.
Fostering conceptual change
Designing a practiceoriented learningenvironment is difficult and timeconsuming
Teachers opt for presentations, texts andother representations to increase timeefficiency.
There are concepts that might bewell described as &quot;counterintuitive&quot;.
The teacher must understand the underlyingmisconception to design activities that allowconceptual change.
Begin with a simpler casescenario where aprinciple applies, moving progressively to higherlevels of complexity.
The teacher designs an experimental situation wherestudents must predict the outcome, being forced toabandon a misconception based on empirical falsifiability.
Architecture of variation
The teacher builds a concept from as manyperspectives possible to allow the pupils toexperience variation within the concept.
Achievements attained in one learning process(approaches, lessons, skills, concepts, etc) become thebackground for a new iterative process in a continuouscycle.
Confronting and disproving the students'predictions might be the best strategy to allow forconceptual change.
Only through reflection on one'sactions can there be learning.
The teacher can foster it, but at theend it is done autonomously by thelearner.
Whether reflection is being done or not canonly be judged from inferences, not fromobservation.
This type of approach to learning has beennamed &quot;metacognitive&quot;, as it critically looksone's own cognition from above, as a trial anderror process.
The teacher should open spaces for the studentsto selfdirect their actions, and other spaces forthe metacognitive reflection.
Teaching as design
There are always some general guidelines onhow to rightly undertake instructional design, butthey are vague and sometimes subjective.
In order to nurture your pedagogicalpractice, there is only one option: keep onlearning.
Why does teaching involve design?
&quot;Everyone designs who devises courses of actionaiming at changing existing situations into desiredones.&quot; (Simon, 1969:129, Cited by Laurillard 2012:78)
Marton Proposes a set of stepstoward this (p78)
Using feedback from previous exp.
Teach according to plan
Spread lessons learned
Teachers need to be experiential learners andimprove their practice using other colleagues'experiences as well.