Chemistry-Atoms

Chemistry : Atoms
Kinetic Theory of Matter
particles
extremely tiny
collide with each other
motion
rapid
random
evidence
Dilution
moving all the time
potassiumimanaganate (VII) dissolving in water
no water currents
particles move and mix
diffusion
Bromine gas
red brown vapour
air
moves up a jar
particles move randomly
rate
mass
higher
slower
Brownian Motion
Robert Brown
scottish
scientist
pollenin water
microscope
pollen grains
moving on the spot
pushed by water particles
smoke cell
smoke particles
pushed by air particles
States of Matter
Solids
fixed volume
fixed shape
particles
packed close together
vibrating slightly
orderly arrangement
forces between particles
rising termperature
particles vibrate more
MELTING POINT
strong bonds broken
solid to liquid
Liquids
fixed volume
no defined shape
"take up the shape of the container
in which they are held"
particles
bonds (when solid) broken
rising temperature
EVAPORATION
particles gain energy to escape as gas
BOILING
particle bonds broken
particles escape as gass
liquid to gas
Gases
no fixed volume
no fixed shape
fill container or space they are in
completely random motion
Plasma
Gas phase heated
electons not associated with atoms
positive charged ions
unbound electrons
Uses
television
signs
flourescent tubes
nature
stars
lightning
aurorae
most flames
change of state
physical conditions
water
all three states possible
heating
particles vibrate faster
Elements
simplest substance
can not be broken down further
ATOM
proton number same
chemical behavior same
Atom
Atomic Mass
too light to be weighed
relative atomic mass scale
Relative Atomic Mass
"mass of an atom on a scale where
the mass of a carbon atom is 12 units"
Ar
Moles
Avogadro's Constant
one mole contains 6.02x10(23) atoms
the relative atomic mass of an element
expressed in grams contains one mole of atoms.
number of atoms = weight
1mole hydrogen = 1g
1mole carbon = 12g
1mole magnesium = 24g
1mole sulphur = 32g
1mole iron = 56g
1mole copper = 64g
moles of atoms = mass/Ar