Molecular Covalent Compunds, Ionic Compounds, Hydrogen Bonds
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Chemistry : Molecular Covalent Compunds, Ionic Compounds, Hydrogen Bonds
Molecules form when two or more atoms form chemical bonds with each other. It doesn't matter if the atoms are the same or are different from each other.
O2, H2, N2
H2O, CO2, CH4
A compound (which is a molecule) where two or more DIFFERENT atoms join together chemically, with covalent or ionic bonds. CO2, H2O, CH4
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds. The positively charged ions are called cations and the negatively charged ions are called anions.
electostatic forces of attraction
solid (room temperature)
not conduct electricity
dissolve in water
high melting point
high boiling point
Covalent (Molecular) Compound
high boiling point
molecular covalent compound
low melting point
low boiling point
dependent upon elements
bad conductors of electricity
if at all
sea of electrons between layers
good insulators of heat
special case of intramolecular bonding
highly electro negative atoms
ability to attract negative charge
between bond atoms
region occupied by electrons
electrons in constant motion
high electropositive bonded to high electronegative
more time near electronegative
build up of charge
less time near electropositve
build up positive charge
molecules pack close together
hard to separate
becomes positive charge in space
O, N, F
hold electrons close to nucleus
high polar bonds
lone pair of electrons
not true bonds
aggregate of atoms
stuck together by attractive forces
molecules "stick" together
oxygen partial negative
hydrogen partial positve
water beads on a surface
attractive forces between atoms
attraction to other things
O attracted to ions in glass
inter or intra molecular bonds
Water is a polar molecule, and its intramolecular bonds are polar covalent. To put it simply, the bonding is covalent, and not ionic, because both hydrogen and oxygen are nonmetals (at standard temperature and pressure). It is a polar molecule because of its molecular shape and because of the disparity in the electronegativities of hydrogen and oxygen. In fact, because hydrogen is so much less electronegative than oxygen, there is a strong intermolecular force known as hydrogen bonding present in water. Hydrogen bonding is an exceptional case of dipole-dipole interactions.
Intermolecular - Hydrogen bonding (we can see there's an H and the Oxygen.
Intramolecular: covalent; nonmetals
Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions). They are weak compared to the intramolecular forces, the forces which keep a molecule together.
e.g covalent bonds of HCl are stronger than bonds between the molecules
forces between molecules
2 or more molecules
is this intERmolecular as the bond polarity causing hydrogen bond is between molecules.
An intramolecular force is any force that holds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound. They contain all types of chemical bond. They are stronger than intermolecular forces, which are present between atoms or molecules that are not actually bonded.
metal + nonmetal
nonmetal + nonmetal
forces within molecules
covalent bonds between O & H in water?