Tutorial Visualisation of Knowledge

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Tutorial: Visualisation of Knowledge
Requirements for Presentations
Why?
problem: overusage of presentation aids
a presentation file that can be understood without the presenter can only fail in an active presentation
experiment: minimal visual aid to present ONE aspect
make a lasting impression!
what is expected?
good presentation
standard
speaker appearance
voice
Sprecherziehung?
free & clear, in own words, loud enough, not too fast
posture
gesture & mimic
attitude
interested?
convincing?
interaction with audience
eye contact
queries
organisation
time limit 20 min: 15 pres + 5 interaction
sequence: intro - outline - content - summary
orientation in sequence for audience
content
not a description of project activities
focus on ONE particular aspect of your project
hard!
conditions
goals
media
choice of topic
temporal sequence
didactical comment
pro/con, difficulties
key questions
how does your project increas learners' ICC?
how does it support autonomous language learning?
coherent, comprehensible
interlinked with issues discussed before
high level of reflection
readiness to answer questions
principles
Variation
brilliant presentation
media usage
new for me & you!
single visual anchor/representation/analogy
when someone from the audience sees the vis. anchor afterwards, they must be able to recall main info
focus on process/development of your vis. anchor
interact with media
hard with pc (typing, pointing..)
easy with ohp & whiteboard
structure of analogy fits the topic
show/hide ok
minimalistic
reflect on your choice & design
project plan must be finished one week before presentation is due
handout?
Tutorial
motivation: voluntary, but grade based on fulfilment of requirements
other sessions:
fixed time & place -- for everybody
individual tut: flexible in date & time
content:
pres - ideas
evaluating ideas
you need to know WHAT before thinking about WHEN
only after easter holidays (beginning of may?)
(( first pres 16.5. --- IMPORTANT ))
1st
organisational
Thu 14. 4.DS = 1 - 2:30 pm
@ MSZ
how many? LTLT=5, XYX=? + introduction course!
goal
theoretical background
sensitize
why visualize?
because we speak & think visually
> visuallisation aids comprehension & reproduction rate
sensitize to potential of visualization
awareness of connection: learning <-> vis. representation
finding/matching examples
how to visualize?
aid
ideas how to visualise
strategies of representation
icons
media-specific
technical aid
FEEDBACK
giving
receiving
methodology
explain th.background in 2 ways
visually& cognitively INeffective
visually effective
use this map to present
use film as a source of techniques
participants
maria
oliver
maud
franziska
plan
prep
technik?
action
aushang!
action
Unterpunkt 3
Spalte 3
Intro
13:00
time
socialize!
action
Who are you?
outside5mins
where do you come from?
where in dresden do you live?
scale: semester
scale: how many semesters will you need?
scale: evaluate own pres-skills
yes/no: who got my email?
What did you do so far, any experience in visualisation?
on way upstairs
your expectations?
deal with feedback too?
good presentations
tools & techniques
ideas
prezi.com
Intro vis
what's visualisation?
action
13:20
time
film analysis
--end
time
evaluation
2nd
organisational
next session?
new participants - expectations?
how are your presentations developing? -> plan who & when!
cognitive/psychological background
show that we speak visually???
viz-ideas
general
periodic table
media specific
OHP
prezi
think
prezi is not main goal!
learn to visualise without electronic aid
link to last session!
practice to find visual metaphors!
how to visualise a project
visual metaphor:
(abstract) source domain --> (concrete, visual) target domain
learning is travelling
learning English is a long way with ups and downs, but it's worth it!
learning is building a house (constructivism)
we cannot transfer knowledge -- all we can do is provide a scaffolding for the learners to build up knowledge themselves
realising a project is travelling through landscape
realising a project is building a house
more: periodic table
task: vis projects!
your turn!
1.
choose a project topic
1.1.
your own presentation
1.2.
or choose a project plan from FTE
1.3.
or go to http://ellt2010-11.wikispaces.com/
2.
get to the heart of it
2.1.
what's your focus?
2.1.1.
what's the most interesting part of your project idea?
2.2.
how do you increase learner autonomy & ICC?
2.3.
why do you consider your method effective?
3.
make it visible
3.1.
find visual metaphors for your main idea
3.1.1.
think of your everyday life
3.1.2.
think about products in the supermarket
4.
present to partner & check effectiveness
4.1.
could you use icons/logos?
4.2.
too much text?
3rd
organisational
how are your presentations developing? -> plan who & when, individual sessions!
next session?
why dont people practice before?
not authentic
feel like experts already
effort
benefits not clear
warm-up: advertiser applies for teaching job
task
choose a topic
from text books, curriculum
own
history of migration in the USA
past perfect / simple past - what's the difference?
identify associated teaching goals
lehrplan?
evaluate existing visualisations
describe
structure
hierachical
collection
network
direction of reading
purpose?
effectiveness?
develop own ideas how to support the topic visually & reflect on effectiveness
think about concrete realisations: context? media? potentials/problems?
context: teacher/learner centered?
analysis of visual support
Example 1
Characters in Romeo & Juliet
topic
understanding relationships & conflicts of the characters
goal
paths of relation, clusters = families
visualisations
doodle
visualisations
best if students develop their own chart (constructivism)
context? media?
use computer or other flexible realisation (understanding relationships is a process!)
context? media?
4th
warm-up "Schmiegenraten"
task from last week, but media-specific!
What is visualisation?
what are we talking about?
make visible the invisible
turn nonvisual/abstract data/relations into visually perceivable/comprehensible format/representation
nonvisual information =
our lives are full of this!
thoughts
abstract concepts
"justice"
"friendship"
"truth"
relations btw concepts
abstract reasoning
"humans are mammals, all mammals give birth, therefore all humans give birth"
signsystems
alphabet
e.g. Text = connection of concepts
numbers, other data
e.g. spreadsheet
actions, processes
emotions
but its hard to communicate
abstract concepts -- via metaphor
equality?
scales
cognitive effort (signsystem -> meaning)
intercultural communication
e.g. pioneer plaque
Why visualise?
cognitive linguistics
because we understand all concepts visually:
evidence: speaking visually!
metaphor is a mode of thought
abstract reasoning is a special form of spacial reasoning (Chafe?)
metaphor:
(abstract) source domain --> (concrete) target domain
image metaphors / poetic ~
you're a candle in the wind
conceptual metaphors
Argument is War
set up positions, attack, defend, retreat,
win/lose the argument
Life is a Journey
I'm at a crossroad in my life
He took the wrong way
she met interesting people along her path
Death is Departure
From the Monty Python Dead Parrot-sketch:
"This parrot is no more. It has ceased to be. It’s expired and gone to meet its
maker. This is a late parrot. It’s a stiff. Bereft of life, it rests in peace. If you
hadn’t nailed it to the perch, it would be pushing up the daisies. It’s rung down
the curtain and joined the choir invisible. This is an ex-parrot."
-> Outline the mappings that appear in the text with reference to the DEATH IS
DEPARTURE metaphor. Are there any other conventional metaphors
apparent in this text?
-> Discuss Lakoff’s claim that metaphors are grounded in experience and as
such not culture-specific with reference to examples from the text.
image schemes
up-down
Good is Up, Bad is Down
high quality, high moral values, high expectations, high life
high technology, higher education, higher forms of life
Power is Up, Powerlessness is Down
high society, high class, high status, high command, high
priest, high position in a company.
front-back
Future is front, Past is Back
looking forward to meeting you
he left Jane behind and turned to Christina
involved/detached
because a text is detached (can stand for itself in time & space)
the more text, the less you need the author/a presenter.
more involved = easier to remember
in a live presentation, you are fixed in time & space,
use this context!
use personal stories/narratives
psychology
visual thinking / representation of knowledge?
Arnheim1969
visuell-räumlicher notitzblock
analogy
power of analogy
Analogiebildung
Wissenstransfer: Anwendung von bekanntem Wissen auf Neues
Möglichkeit, aus bekanntem Wissen Hypothesen aufzustellen
~= Modelle = Vereinfachungen
!= Metapher
metaphor replaces source with target (hidden comparison), analogy openly compares the two
schwer zu finden -> vorgeben
über Oberbegriff verwandte Systeme finden
Zufall nutzen (Warenhaus, Wörterbuch blättern)
ACHTUNG kann zu falschen Schlüssen führen
Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Analogie prüfen
emotionales Verständnis
Quellkonzepte sind emotional besetzt
-> besseres behalten
BSP Gewehrkugel = gefährlich
Einsatz
Lernen durch Visualisierung & Organisation
BSP Moleküle & Atome = Kuchen & Krümel & kleine Teile von Butter etc.
Verständnis/Problemlösen
komplizierte Bewegungsabläufe
fördert innovation
heutzutage ist so vieles erforscht, das neues eher dadurch entsteht, etwas bekanntes in einen neuen Zusammenhang zu stellen
finding analogies
tips for sources
human body & experience
easy technical concepts
find inspiration
shops,
magazines
practice
visualise the known to help assimilate the unknown
seek inner balance: accomodation & assimilation
visualisation as elaboration
loci-method
bedeutungsarmes material individualisieren
individualität & behaltensleistung: bilder > worte > zahlen
visualisation as reduction
grouping
visualisation enables parallel processing
see the great picture
synthesis
(audio only linear)
organisation of knowledge vital for recalling information
holistic learning: both left & right part of the brain
visualisation & behaviourism
conditioning visual stimulus: use specific symbols as triggers for student reactions
ONE visual anchor will trigger main points of your presentation in your audience !
visualisation & constructivism
multiple kodierung
besser speichern/abrufen wenn über versch. sinneskanäle
verbal
visual
motoric (sp?)
how is knowledge organised? (Lernen mit Bildmedien, Weidenmann p 26)
information theory
because seeing is more than perception -- it's active perception (decoding of signs), you interpret what you see on the basis of preexisting knowledge
"The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend.” Henri Bergson
utilise your audiences' preexisting knowledge to make your point!
language & visual communication = sign systems
sender (encode) channel/medium (decode) receiver
graph!
How can we visualise?
strategies of visualisation & their application in the classroom
main
++effectiveness++
condense to its basic structure
common!
prototypical!
stereotypes!
be consistent
make it individual!
organic
colours
context
but not uncommon!
involve emotion
funny/weird
involve many senses
be active, interact!
point at
focus on
temporarily underline
uncover
hide
goal
support comprehension & memorization during presentation
media types
blackboard / flipchart
ohp
pc
What is visualised?
PROCESS
scripts
real pictures (fotos)
CONCEPT/STRUCTURE
schemas
real pictures (fotos)
DATA
function
visualisation as a substitute for reality
make visible the invisible
learn about the invisible
1.
Lerngegenstand
Statistik
2.
Bildermacher: entwickelt Vorstellung von Lerngegenstand
3.
Bildermacher visualisiert
4.
Mediales Angebot
Grafik zur Statistik
5.
Lerner: Interpretation des medialen Angebots
6.
Lerner entwickelt Vorstellung von Lerngegenstand
express personal experience/emotion
for evaluation of learning success
How? types of visualisation
icons/signs
smalles graphical meaning-bearing unit
metaphorical
e.g. computer interfaces!
structural
illustration
prototypical (real) image
organisational principles
map presentation process on image
linear order
timeline |----------->
sequence of events, actions
contunuum <---> (one dimension)
networks
= natural representation of knowledge
e.g.