Graves Disease Concept Map

Graves-Disease-Concept-Map
Clinical manifestations
- opthalmopathy
- functional abnormalities
- infiltrative changes
- symptoms
- pretibial myexedma
- subcutaneous swelling on
anterior portions of leg
- indurated and erythematous skin
- endocrine system (thyroid)
- enlarged goiter
- systolic bruit over thyroid
- hypercalcemia
- decreased PTH
- diminished sensitivity to exogenous insulin
- reproductive system
- oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea
- erectile dysfunction
- decreased libido
- increased estrogen
- GI
- weight loss
- frequent stools
- N/V/D/A
- abdominal pain
- decreased lipid levels
- increase in cholesterol expulsion in feces
- decrease in tissue stores of vitamins
- impaired conversion of B vitamins
- cardiovascular
- tachycardia
- increased metabolism
- loud heart sounds
- dysrythmias
- hypertrophy
- nervous system
- restlessness
- increased cerebral metabolism
- short attention span
- fatigue
- tremor
- insomnia
- increased appetite
- emotional lability
- respiratory
- skin
- sweating
- Increased circulation related to
increased metabolism
- flushing
- warm skin
- heat intolerance
- hair loss
Cause of 50-80% of all hyperthyroidism
- form of type 2 hypersensitivity
- stimulation of the thyroid by
antibodies directed against TSH
receptor
- prevalent in women in their 30s and 40s.
Therapy
- antithyroid drugs
- methimazole is drug of choice
- radioactive iodine
- ablates thyroid gland
- surgery
- Following treatment, hypothyroidism develops in
most individuals.
- comfort measures
- prednisone to reduce eye swelling
- tape eyes closed at night to prevent drying
- sunglasses
- eye drops
Cellular changes in thyroid gland
- lymphocytic infiltrates
- follicular hypertrophy
Diagnosis
- increased serum thyroid hormone levels
- decreased TSH levels
- presence of thyroid-stimulating
immunoglobulins (TSI)
- results are almost always positive
- Photo credit:
http://www.globalrph.com/labs_t.htm
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