Neuroscience

Neuroscience
Blood Supply of the CNS
Sensory Systems
- Cortical areas
- Primary sensory cortex
- Primary somatosensory
- Primary auditory
- Primary visual
- Primary vestibular
- Sensory association cortex
- Somatosensory association
- Visual association
- Auditory association
- Ascending tracts
- Spinothalamic Tract
- Dorsal Column & Medial Lemniscus
Memory
Cognition
- Cortical areas
- Association cortex
- Prefrontal association
- Parietotemporal association
- Limbic association
Conscious states
- Reticular formation
- Reticular nuclei
- Ventral tegmental area (Dopamine)
- Pedunculopontine nucleus
(Acetylcholine)
- Raphe nuclei (Serotonin)
- Locus Ceruleus & medial
reticular area
(Norepinephrine)
- What keeps us awake?
(Reticular Activating System)
- Reticular nuclei
- Locus Ceruleus
- Raphe nuclei
- Tegmental nuclei (dorsal)
- Ascending fibres projecting up
to cerebral components (ARAS)
- Cerebral components
- Basal forebrain
(hypothalamus)
- Thalamus
- Cerebral cortex
Cranial Nerves
Language
- Speech motor
- Broca's area
- Area analogous to Broca's in
right hemisphere
Motor Systems
- Motor planning areas
- Premotor area
- Supplementary motor area
- Broca's area
- Area analogous to Broca's in
opposite hemisphere
- Primary motor cortex
- Movement control
- Cerebellum
- Basal Ganglia
- Motor neurons
- Somatic
- Upper Motor Neurons
- Head
- Corticobulbar tract
- Skeletal system
- Flexors
- Corticospinal tract
- Lateral
- Hands
- Feet
- Medial
- Lesions
- Above pyramid decussation
- Below pyramid decussation
- Rubrospinal (red) tract
- Extensors
- Vestibulospinal tract
- Medial
- Lateral
- Reticulospinal tract
- Lateral
- Medial
- Tectospinal tract
- UMN lesions
- Hemiparesis or hemiplegia
- Increased DTRs (hyperreflexia)
- Hypertonia
- Spasticity
- Pathologic reflexes
- No muscle atrophy (except disuse)
- Spinal shock
- Hypotonia
- Hemiplegia
- Plegia of single limb
- Areflexia
- Lower Motor Neurons
- Cranial Nerves
- CN3
- CN4
- CN5
- CN6
- CN7
- CN9
- CN10
- CN11
- Ventral horn (spinal cord)
- LMN lesions
- Fibrillations
- Fasciculations
- Muscle weakness
- Paresis (partial)
- Plegia (complete)
- Hemiplegia
- Paraplegia
- Quariplegia
- Decreased deep tendon reflexes
- Hypotonia
- Atrophy
- Interneurons
- Autonomic (visceral)
- Neurosecretory (hypothalamus)
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