Weather and Climate Revision

Weather and Climate Revision
Air Masses
An air mass coming from the North Pole will be cold and dry, so if it moves over the UK you'll get cold dry weather. An air mass coming from warm ocean will be warm and dam, and if it moves over the UK you will get warm dampish weather.Often, two different air masses will meet and clash and this causes sudden changes in the weather.
Fronts
A Warm Front means a warm air mass is arriving.
A Cold Front means a cold air mass is arriving.
Four other factors that affect the climate of a place
Distance from the coast. the sea is cooler than the land in summer, and warmer in winter. So the sea breeze keeps the coast cool in summer- and warm in winter.
Prevailing wind direction. For example in the UK the prevailing wind is from the south west. It brings water vapor from the ocean- and that means rain.
Ocean currents. For example a warm ocean current called north Atlantic Drift warms the west coast of the UK winter, the the warming wind.
Height above sea level. Or Altitude. The higher you are above the sea level, the cooler it is. The temperature falls by about 1 Degres Celsius for every 100 meters.
Big Picture of weather and Climate
Weather is the state of the atmosphere around us. (Warm,Wet, Windy). It can change from hour to hour.
The main causes of weather are the sun, and water vapor.
Climate is the average weather in a place- what is usually like there
Climate changes from place to place, because of the factors such as distance from the equator, and from sea
Water Droplets
Hailstones
Sleet
Snow
Two main causes that create weather
The sun
the sun heats the Earth. but it does not heat it evenly, because the earth is round. So the top and the bottom don't warm up much. The Earth in turn heats the air- so the air also warms unevenly. Warmer air rises. Colder air then moves in to take it's place, as Wind.
Water vapor
The sun also warms the oceans. This causes water to evaporate to give a gas, Water Vapor- the second main cause of weather. the Water Vapor mixes through the air, helped by wind.So there is some in the air around you even if you are miles away from water. The water Vapor also rises up to the sky and creates clouds. Which then cause rain.
Earth Tilt
The earth travels non stop around the sun. It is tilted as it travels. And that's why the climate in different places can be so different, in different months. The tilt gives our planet seasons.
Air Pressure
Although we can't feel it all the air above is pressing down on us, giving air pressure. If air pressure if LOW,it means that the air is rising. If it is high it means that the air is sinking. And each brings a different weather
Types of Rainfall
CONVECTIONAL RAINFALL- The air rises because the ground heats it up. it rises as currents of warm air. We call these Convection Currents. So we call the rain Convectional Rainfall.
RELIEF RAINFALL- Wind is moving the air. When the wind meets a line of high hills or mountains there's only a way to go up! We call this Relief Rainfall.
FRONTAL RAINFALL- As you can imagine, huge blocks of air call air masses move around the earth. When a warm air mass meets a cold one, the warm air is forced to rise.So we get rain. This is called Frontal Rainfall.
Weather
meteorologic or weather scientists use data to write weather reports, and draw weather maps, and make weather forecast.
DEF- Weather is the state of atmosphere at a given time. You can tell a lot about it just by looking.
Types of clouds
Cumulus Clouds- They are usually the result of warm air rising fast. for example when the ground heats up the air quickly on a hot day, or air rises at the side of a mountain.
Stratus Clouds- They are the result of air rising more slowly, over the wide area. For example when a warm air mass slides up slowly over a cold on, leading to frontal rain.
Cirrus Clouds- They are usually the sign that warm front is arriving.
Equipment for measuring the Weather
Thermometer
Anemometer ( wind turns the cups which turns a counter).
Barometer
Wind Vane
Rain Gauge
Visibility Meter ( a beam of light is sent out and a sensor measures how much arrives).
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