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This is a mind map that contains information about the acids bases and salts.Start to use a mind map to express and organize your ideas and knowledge right now.
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Examples of bases
A base is defined as a substance thatcontains hydroxide ions (OHˉ) whendissolved in water.
A base can also be defined as asubstance which accepts oxide orhydroxide ions.
Bases have different solubility
Most are insoluble inwater
Bases which aresoluble are calledalkalis.
Alkalis have a bitter taste andsoapy feel
Alkalis turn red litmus blue.
Alkalis only show theiralkaline properties whendissolved in water
This is because it is thehydroxide ions that give alkalisits properties
Alkalis, like acids, are alsogood electrical conductors
Acid + Alkali => Salt + Water
E.g. Sodium Hydroxide +Sulfuric Acid =>Sodium Sulfate+ Water
Alkali + Ammonium salt =>Ammonia + Water + Salt
Example: Sodium hydroxide +Ammonium Chloride=> SodiumChloride + water + Ammonia
Test for Ammonia gas: If a colourless,pungent gas that turns damp red litmuspaper blue is produced, the gas is ammonia.
Alkali(of metal A) + salt(ofmetal B) => Metal B hydroxide+ salt(of metal A)
Sodium hydroxide + Copper(II)sulfate=> sodium sulfate +Copper(II) hydroxide
If metal B hydroxide is soluble,reaction will not take place
Window cleaning solutions
Soaps and Detergents
Neutralizing acidic soil
To make iron, concrete and cement
An acid is a substance thatdissociates to form hydrogen ionswhen dissolved in water.
Organic acids contain carbonand are found in livingthings.
Inorganic acids do not contain carbonand are commonly found in sciencelaborities.
Acids reacts with certainmetals to form a saltand hydrogen gas
When a reactive metal, e.g. magnesium, isadded to an inorganic acid like hydrochloricacid or sulfuric acid, effervescense will beobserved.
The reactive metal willdissolve and the reactionwill give out heat.
The bubbles of gasproduced containhydrogen gas.
Hydrogen gas can be tested byinserting a lighted splint into a testtube. If the gas is hydrogen, thesplint will extinguish with a 'pop'sound.
Unreactive metals likecopper and silver will notreact with acids
Acids react with allcarbonates to producea salt, water andcarbon dioxide gas.
When a carbonate compound, e.g. calciumcarbonate, is added to an inorganic acid likehydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid,effervescence will be observed.
The bubbles of gasproduced containcarbon dioxide gas.
Carbon dioxide can be tested for bybubbling the gas into calcium hydroxidesolution, also known as limewater. If thegas is carbon dioxide, a white precipitatewill be observed in the calciumhydroxide solution.
Acids react with metaloxides/hydroxides to give a salt andwater
Types of oxides
Are oxides of nonmetals
Most acidic oxides are soluble in waterand will give an acid(e.g. carbondioxide dissolves in water to givecarbonic acid)
Are oxides of metals
Most basic oxides are insoluble inwater except for a few(e.g. sodiumoxide, potassium oxide)
Are metallic oxides that react with bothacids and bases to form a salt andwater
Examples:Aluminium oxide,Lead(II) oxide, Zinc oxide
Shows neither basic or acidicproperties
Examples: Water, Carbonmonoxide and nitric oxide
Acids taste sour.
Acids turn blue litmus red.
Acids are good electrolytes i.e.they are good conductors ofelectricity.
This is because the hydrogen ions are able tomove about freely in the acid and thus cancarry the electric charge
Used in carbatteries