Satirical Devices

allusion: making reference to an outside topic such as work of art, a place, an event to
"I find that I shall be the only happy man when
I am blessed with the sight of my dear
Cunegonde." (pg.73)
This is an allusion because the readers are drawn back to
Voltaire's ideas which satirizes optimism, and we make a
connection between the two. Voltaire is once again trying
to mock the idea of optimism by showing us the endless
avarice of Count Pococurante.
"Whirlwinds of fire and shes covered the streets and
public places; houses fell, roofs were flung upon the
pavements, and the pavements were scattered."
This is an allusion because it is a reference
made to the real earthquake o Lisbon which
happened on the first of November, 1755.
Voltaire is satirizing optimism because he
is mocking the idea of the world being the
best of all possible worlds.
understatement: representing something smaller, worse, or less important
"Candide wondered why it was that the ace never came to him; but Martin was not at all astonished." (pg.57)
It actually means that Martin was extremely surprised by how the ace never came to him, but Voltaire tries to emphasis this by an understatement. Voltaire satirizes the greed of people and how they trick other people for their benefit.
"Everything is right, mat be, but I declare it is very hard
to have lost Miss Cunegonde and to be put upon a spit
by Oreillons." (pg.38)
This is another example of an understatement where it shows the Candide's great despair. Candide says that everything is right, and it's just hard to believe. However, he actually has no hope, and is extremely depressed.
oxymoron: combining two opposite words
"heroic butchery" (pg.5)
It is an oxymoron because these two terms have opposite meanings from
each other. Heroic is to be brave and admired by other people. However,
butchery is to kill a large number of people which will lead to others
despising him/her.
"some pleasure in having no pleasure." (pg.73)
It is an example of an oxymoron because of the two opposite meanings in
this phrase. Having some pleasure is to feel happy and to have satisfaction. On the other hand, having no pleasure is a feeling of annoyance.
parody: imitating or mimicking the style of a certain text, picture, song in a humorous way
"It is demonstrable that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for all
being created for an end, all is necessary for the best end." (pg.1)
Pangloss was a person with great optimism, and he believed that the this world was the best of all possible worlds. And Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was a philosopher who is still remembered for his optimism. Voltaire had parodied his ideas of optimism into Pangloss's thoughts, and made Candide mock his ideas.
"But is there not a pleasure in criticizing
everything, in pointing out faults where others
see nothing but beauties?" (pg. 73)
Candide explains his thoughts about criticizing, and how fun it is. Candide parodies
Bildungsroman's criticisms of romance and adventure. Voltaire satires the idea of love,
adventure with a parody to Bildungsroman.
irony: expressing the word with an opposite meaning
"The tender, loving Candide, seeing his beautiful Cunegonde
embrowned, with bloodshot eyes, withered neck, wrinkled
cheeks, and rough, red arms...She embraced Candide and her
brother...and Candide ransomed them both." (pg.82)
This is an irony because Candide explains how Cunegonde became
uglier, but he still decides to save her, and marry her. Using this irony, I think Voltaire is trying to satirize the blindness of love, and how it makes a person into a fool.
"Master Pangloss, the greatest philosopher of
the whole province, and consequently of the
whole world." (pg.2)
Voltaire is trying to satirize Pangloss's actions of pretending to look smart. Pangloss talks as if he knows he knows everything about the world, but it seems like his
philosophies are only complicated without much depth.
hyperbole: exaggeration (representing something bigger, greater, or more important)
"The Baron's lady weighed
about three hundred and fifty
pounds..." (pg.1)
This is an example of a hyperbole because of the exaggerated weight. It's representing the Baron's lady's fat, big body with a larger weight than what she really is. She would not really weigh three hundred and fifty pounds.
"...was therefore a person of great
consideration" (pg.1)
This is also an hyperbole of the Baron's lady because Voltaire is
actually telling us the Baron's lady's lack of thoughts but he is
exaggerating it to having great consideration.