The History of Graphic Communications

The History of Graphic Communications
Computers are a very important part
of life
brownie camera
Sir John Hershel developed the
word photography from the
Greek words light and writing
the first camera was the camera obscura
which was a darkened chamber or room. The
camera was then shrunk to the size of a
portable box
the first successful photograph was created
by Joseph Niepce in 1827. The first
practical photographic process was called
the Daquerrotype, created by Louis
Daquerrotype
the Caloype process was created by William
Fox Tabot. This is where the subject was
exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing
a paper negative. This is the process that is
the basis of modern photography
the next process was created by Archer, which
was called the Wet Plate Process. The next
process, and the first dry process was created
by Richard Maddox
Eastman then established the Eastman Kodak
Company with the motto "your press the
button, we do the rest". The first camera to
enter the public was the Brownie
the first color photograph was taken by James
Clerk Maxwell. The invention of instant
photography was by Edwin Land.
linotype machine
The Linotype machine and the
typewriter were both results of
Clephane search for an easier way
to transcribe his notes and legal
briefs and to produce multiple
copies
Mergenthaler was Celphane's goal, but it was
Mergenthaler that suggested casting type in
metal rather than papier-mache
this machine set the type mechanically rather
than by hand. The first one was installed in
New York
the linotype machine had a 90 character
keyboard with separate keys for uppercase
letters, due to the lack of a shift key. The
arrangement of the this keyboard was by
letter frequency. The English alphabet was on
there twice, black keys were lowercase, white
keys were uppercase. Then there were
separate blue keys for punctuation, digits,
small capital letters, and fixed width spaces
the printing press
Modern book printing was introduced by a
man named Johannes Gutenberg
Gutenberg was inspired to make better books
because of his love for reading and his
father's work as a merchant and goldsmith
he created his metal type out of an alloy of
lead, tin, and aluminum that melted at low
temperatures. This was a much more durable
printing presses influenced the making of
many other things, such as paper, which was
developoed in China by Ts'ai Lun.
the first book printed was the Bible
Gutenberg impacted communication in many
ways. He perfected script, books were made
rapidly, current information could be shared
locally and around the world, book cost
decreased and therefor the demand grew,
books were written in many different
languages, trade flourished, economies
became stronger, and brought us into the
Renaissance
print techniques we still use today are relief
printing, intaglio, porous, and lithography
illuminated manuscript
Books were made to replace scrolls
in such a way that it was easier to
read and make
scrolls were either long, continuous pieces of
papyrus, or separate sheets glued together,
and were then simply rolled up, or with
wooden rollers at each end
then came the codex, which was a covered
and bound collection of handwritten pages
with advantages such as compactness,
sturdiness, and ease of referance
parchment was a substrate made from an
animal skin such as sheep, goat, and cow,
where the hair and fat were removed, the skin
smoothed out soaked in water, then calcium,
flour, and salt, finally it was stretched and
dried. This made it very durable
monastic monks then made books, called
iluminated manuscripts, where the text and the
borders were adorned with elaborte
illustrations and ornamentation
the phonetic alphabet
The phonetic alphabet's origin is
unknown, but some say that it is a
variation of hieroglyphics,
cuneiform, or an independent
creation. In the phonetic alphabet
one sign represents one sound
it was easy to learn, therfor
spread very eaisly, and used as
the first widespread script. the
phonetic alphabet gave rise to
other alphabets such as Latin
there were two forms. a rigid,
formal script that was used for
important and official
manuscripts, and a quick informal
style used for routine writings
a serif is a finishing of stroke,
originated when someone was
carving words into a stone,
making the words more legible.
the baseline is where most
letters sit, and the descender is
the part of a letter that goes
under the baseline
cuneiform
Hieroglyphics was influenced by the
concept of writing word from the
Sumerians cuneiform. They are a
formal writing system made up of
logographic and alphabetic elements
the word hieroglyphics is derived
from the two Greek words hiero
and glyphic, meaning sacred
writing
hieroglyphics were used for
religion, government, for the
military leaders to communicate in
battle, and to show respect to
their gods and goddesses
it was written on papyrus, which is
a substrate made by placing wet
reeds crisscross over each other,
flattened and dried, rubbed with
flat stones until it was smooth
the famous Rosetta Stone was
found by the french under the
charge of Napoleon Bonaparte. It
head three languages,
hieroglyphics, Greek. and Demotic.
Cuneiform is the
ancient writing of the
Summerians
cuneiform was used to keep track of all the
business transactions
it was made by pressing with rods made with
reeds on clay tablets
it began the series of pictographs
more complex words needed complicated,
long imprints or indents in the clay
Cave Paintings are
beautiful, detailed, and
colorful representations
found on the inside
walls of caves
most of the paintings were of large animals,
hands, and abstract patterns made from water,
plant juice, and blood. They were painted on
by brushes made of sticks, small stones,
leaves, and hair
two of the most famous caves are in Lascaux,
France and Altamira, Spain. The oldest is
Chauvet Pont d' Arc
cave paintings were said to be created for
story telling, instructional and visual aids, and
magical or religious reasons
no one knows who discovered Lascaux, but the
ones who discovered Altamira were Marcelin
Sanz de Sautuola and daughter Maria. A group
of people discovered Chauvet Pont d' Arc and
their names were Eliette Brunell Deschamps,
Christian Hillarie, and Jean Marie Chauvet
cave painting
hieroglyphics
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