Comprehension-Text Structures and Teaching Procedures

Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures
Another method for building an understanding of
the structure of narratives is through
reenactments
Reenactment have students acting out
a scene or story they have read or
heard
A helpful tactic for boosting
comprehension and awareness of text
structure is retelling
It has been proved to provide a sense of
text structure for average and struggling
learners
There are types of retelling that aim to develop
retelling abilities in order to improve students'
comprehension of selections
Pretelling: at this level, students learn to
explain everyday tasks such as making a
sandwich
Guided reading: this level comes after students have
the ability to retell the key steps in an activity,
students use illustrations and then artifacts to retell
the story
After mastering retelling with illustrations and artifacts, students
can use story maps or graphic organizers to aid their retelling
which help students pick out important elements and
relationships among items
Nature of Text: a text has
content and organization
Knowing Organization: provides path for
making an outline of a story or informational
piece
A reader with a good idea of story
organization can use it as a framework for
remembering it
Knowing Content: When students read, they
transform text into ideas or details known as
propositions
propositions form a macrostructure
macrostructure is a running
summary of the text
Narrative Text and Story Schema
Story schema: an internal sense of story that
continually grows, and individuals use to guide them
through a tale, remember the selection, and write their
own stories
Story grammars: a kind of scheme that analyzes a
story into parts that tend to concentrate on setting,
characters, and plot.
Narrative Texts: narratives progress mostly by the main
character's goals, the reader comprehends the story in terms
of the main character's attempts to resolve a problem or
conflict
Narratives differ in orientation such as
action-oriented and consciousness-oriented
narratives
To build a sense of story: the most effective strategy is to read aloud to students
from a variety of materials, most children gain a sense of story from this
exposure, but it is helpful to highlight major structural elements, which can be
accomplished by discussing the story's setting, characters, plot and main
problem
Asking what, how, and why
questions highlight major structural
elements
Another tool for teaching story structure is to have students fill
out generic guide sheets and story maps as they ask students to
read closely so as to complete the maps and require
self-monitoring
The different types of development present in
picture books can be used to show the variety of
narrative structures
Comprehension of narratives: fostering comprehension of
narratives requires being aware of the students' level of
knowledge of narratives which can be assessed by asking them to
retell a familiar story or to compose a story based on a wordless
picture book
Also take into account that fostering the comprehension of
narratives also requires being aware of the students' culture as
European American, African American, and Japanese American
all recount stories in their own way
Expository Text
Expository text is writing that is
designed to explain or provide
information
Expository text has a great variety of
organizations patterns and young students have
limited experience hearing and reading it
Expository text is based on a
complex logical scientific style
A mix of narrative and expository text is needed
to promote a full range of thinking and
comprehension skills
A key to comprehension of expository text is
understanding the text structure, which is the
way the author has organized his or her ideas
Often content dictates structure
Knowledge of structure has a three benefits: It focuses attention
on individual ideas, it provides a clearer view of the relationship
among ideas, and it is a framework to aid retention of information
The types of Expository text structures
1. Enumeration-description: this type provides
details about a subject without giving any
cause-effect or time relationship among them
2. Time sequence: this type specifies time
order with such words as after, today,
afterward, etc
3. Explanation-process: this type provides an
explanation of how something works, steps in a
process are stressed
4. Comparison-contrast: this type presents
differences and similarities through words such as
similar and on the one hand
5. Problem-solution: this type has a statement of a
problem followed by a possible solution or series
of solutions
6. Cause-effect: an effect is presented
along with a single cause or a series of
causes
Teachers are advised to model for students how
to figure out the author's structure and allow
students to practice finding it on their own
Teaching expository text structure: being aware
of how a text is structured will help readers build
a coherent representation of the text
A method to achieve that is the CORE
model (Connect, Organize, Reflect,
Extend)
In the Connect step: the teacher helps the
students build on the known by connecting what
they know to the topic the text will investigate
In the Organize step: the teacher helps the
students to see how the information in the text is
structured
In the Reflect step: students think over how the
text is organized and how knowing the
organizaiton helps them better understand it
END OF PART 1.
11