Vietnam And Australia
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Map of Vietnam And Australia
Outlawing the Communist Party
Menzies and Liberal PartyPledge to ban Communists
Previous bans have been attempted but only successful during war
Proposed to be unlawful
Justifying the ban
Find a way lawfully to ban all communist activity
Needed to make communism as scary and as threatening to Australia as possible
If Unions were pushed too far then there was a risk of industrial instability
How to identify a communist
Unlikely to own up to it
Guilty until proven innocent
If you were accused of being a communist you were guilty, unless you could prove otherwise.
Communist Party Dissolution Bill
the CPA was to be declared an unlawfulorganisation and that the party's propertycould be seized and disposed of.
Any other organisations that were suspectedof being affiliated with the CPA were also to be dissolved
Anyone who carried on the work of theparty after it was declared illegal was to bejailed for five years
as soon as someone was declared to be a communist,they were to be suspended from their job if it were inthe federal government, the defence forces, or in theunions
a communist was 'a person who supports oradvocates the objectives, policies, teachings,principles or practices of communism, asexpounded by Marx and Lenin
Bill failed on first attemptbecause of the ALP said thatthe bill was a move towards atotalitarian state
Korean War influenced ALP to accept the Bill on the 20th September 1950 and officially became a law on the 28th October of the same year
The CPA and trade unionswent to the high court toask for an injunction
It was decided after fourmonths that the bill wasunconstitutional
6 of the 7 judges ruled againstthe act
The One and only question was 'Do you approve of theproposed law for the alteration of the Constitutionentitled “Constitution Alteration (Powers to deal withCommunists and Communism) 1951"?'
The referendum was narrowly defeated by 52082 votes so the Liberal Party wasn't allowed to ban the communist party
America and England also had the same hunt for "reds under the beds
30yearold, established,political party
SouthEast Asia TreatyOrganisation (SEATO)
America, Australia, New Zealand,Britain, France, The Philippines,Thailand and Pakistan were all part ofthis treaty
Each Party recognises that aggression by means of armed attack in the Treaty Area against any of the Parties or against any State or territory which the Parties by unanimous agreement may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance its constitutional processes.
Article IV of the SEATO Treaty, 1954
This treaty was between Australia,New Zealand, and The UnitedStates
The main point of the treaty is "The parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any one of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened in the Pacific."
Article III of the ANZUS Treaty, 1951
Vietnam veterans And their Families
Poisoned by insecticide andherbicide or Agent Orange
Investigation in 1985 saysthat it had not affectedsoldiers.
Not until 1994 was Agentorange acknowledged fordiseases
Cancer, Birth Defects, Miscarriages,brain dysfunction and other diseasesbelieved to be caused by Agent Orange
Pyschologial issues withhandling these diseases.
Post traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)
Heart Disease and Otheralcohol related diseases
No one knew how to deal witheffects of PTSD
compensation but nothing else
Lost 2 years of their lives
No Welcome home parade
Felt Blamed for the war
Shunning of soldiers
Emotionally detached fromfamily and lives
No one tried to understandwhat the soldiers wentthrough
Australia's relations with Asia
Illusion that Australia waspart of Europe and not thePacific
Whitlam said that Australian foreign policywould be Australian andnot dependent on Britainor America
Gough Whitlam opened up a diplomaticrelationship with The People's Republicof China in 1972
Within a year the AustralianEmbassy in China wasreopened
New Trade link with South East
Japan overtakes Englandas biggest export market.
In 19691970 25 percent of Australianexports went to Japan, as opposed to only11.8 percent going to Britain.
trade agreements with South East Asiancountries such as South Korea andTaiwan
abandonment of the 'WhiteAustralia' policy in the 1970s
Tourist Visas to visit Australia
The postWar relationshipwith Vietnam
Australiadisagreed withAmerica andmaintainedrelationships withcommunistVietnam.
the Australian governmentsent aid to help withreconstruction
By the mid1980s, however, goodrelations had once again beenreestablished.
Antiwar protests has beengoing on since 1962
large and angry antiwarmovement growing
Wives of soldiers who were deployedreceived angry phone calls and letters andantiwar literature was handed out.
ALP on the side of protestors
The government's plan to put soldiersinto Vietnam was called "blood fordollars" or "diggers for dollars" byTrade union
By supporting America and risking the livesof Australians we would have a stableeconomy
Work Stoppages as anantiwar protest
the Protestant churches weredivided over the issue ofVietnam
Even before Menzies sent troops a group ofAnglican bishops asked him not to increaseAustralian involvement in Vietnam
The Methodist Church cameout as strongly antiwar
No group more associated withProtests then Universities
Early years some supportedand some were against thewar
only after the start of conscription thatstudents began to come out in force againstthe War.
People of Vietnem, Laos andCombodia had lived throughmany years of war
Due to war indoChinesepeople needed a country tostay in
The Fall of Saigon
operation known as 'Baby Lift'
Taking orphans from country toAmerica or Australia to live withfamilies
The Boat People
attempts were made to evacuateas many people as possible out ofthe country from Australians andAmericans
many were left behind
Needed a new way toescape the communistcountry
Flimsy crowded boats gavethem the answer they werelooking for
Months to arrive at destination
Unseaworthy vessels, manycapsized and were never heard fromagain
Most of the boats went toMalaysia, Indonesia, Thailand andHong Kong
Over 50 boats managed to make it allthe way to Australia and 2000 peopleevery month made it to claim asylum
overcrowded, unsanitary and unable todeal with the evergrowing numbers ofpeople arriving
governments argued overhow to deal with thesituation
The Orderly Departure Program