Diabetes Mellitus

Mind-Map-Diabetes-Mellitus
Type 2
- Autosomal Dominate
- Obesity
- Insulin Resistance
- MODY: mature onset diabetes of youth
- Cause:Mutations of Glucokinase genes
and 5 other genes that regulate insulin in
the pancreas
- Gene mutations
- KCNJ11; Potassium channel glucose
secretion pathology
- TCF 12; endcodes for secretion of insulin
- PPAR-y; adpocyte differentiation & glucose
metabolization
Diagnostic Test
- HemeA1c
- Blood Glucose Monitoring
- Genetic marker testing
Treatments
- Insulin
- Carbohydrate limitation
- Exercise: increases insulin sensitivity
Type 1 insulin dep
- Pathophyology
- T-cells infiltrate pancreas kill insulin
producing B cells
- Autoantibiodies are formed against
pancreatic cells
- Genetic Risk factors
- HLA 2 Allels gene mutation; HLA DR3,4,
inappropriate autoimmune activation
- Aspartic acid on position 57 mutates and
changes shape of the molecule
- Causitive Factors
- Genetic factors not exclusively responsible
for disorder, viral infections activate
autoimmune response
Pathophysiology
- Blindness
- Heart Disease
- Kidney Failure
- Elevated Blood Glucose
- Insulin Resistance
Chromosome 11
- Mutations on CTLA 4 ; cytotoxic
lymphosyte
- PTPN22; lymphoid tyrosine phosphate
- negatively regulates T-cell activation, also
linked to Lupus, Arthritis, Thyroid disease
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