What is learning Who am I as a learner
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What is learning? Who am I as a learner?
Curricula trends in Learning
20th century there has been a shift intheoretical understandings of how people learn
Past: emphasis on understanding andplanning
Present: emphasis on understanding howdevelopment is defined
American DAP curriculum
Te Whariki curriculum
Vygotsky: just as a mould gives shape to asubstance, words can shape an activity into astructure’
Sociocultural theory has likewise producednew curricula
Sociocultural model of learning
“Emotions function cognitively only whenthey embed beliefs. For example, an emotionsuch as ‘fear’ cannot be genuine if one doesnot believe in danger.”
“An emotion provides a frame of reference.For example, parental love is a frameworkwithin which one organizes a set of feelings,attitudes and actions.”
“Emotions can help or distract our focus.”
I believe emotions are distracting to learning.
For example, emotions such as sadness causepeople to over think and disrupt learning.
Children may be very energetic and happy andtherefore can not concentrate in the classroomcausing their learning to be affected.
“Emotions can make things stand out byheightening our awareness and redirecting ourattention.”
Recognise emotional responses in oneselfand others can lead to self-control both sociallyand educationally
Knowledge and values are acquired andtheorised within an individual’s particularcommunity
Family, neighbours, friends, and colleagues
Belonging to a community
Different types of learning communities
Collaborative curricular structures withininstitutions
“ Purposely restructure the curriculum to linktogether course or course work so thatstudents find greater coherence in what theyare learning as well as increased intellectualinteraction with faculty and fellow students.”(Gabelnick et al. 1990:5)
Surface and deep knowledge
Surface knowledge and learning isunreflective studying of a fragmentedcurriculum, unthinking acceptance of texts orother authorities and memorizing withoutunderstanding.
Deep knowledge requires time to study indepth a limited number of topics and subjects.It demands an enquiring and analyticalapproach to information and interpretations,and it requires subject expertise on the part ofteachers.
Deep thinking and learning also have socialand emotional dimensions
Cognitive learning theories
“Cognitive learning theories view learning asa process of understanding andinternalizing….aspects of the world aroundus.”
Distinct stages of cognitive development
Develop mental tools to help processinformation
Influenced curriculum development
Requires social interaction
Zone of estimated ability
Social learning theories
Learning leads development
‘Zone of proximal development’ (ZPD)
Help from teachers/ peers/ caregivers
Children’s learning becomes increasinglycomplex as the child grows
Active participants in learning
Constructivist learning theories
Learners actively construct frameworks ofunderstanding
Prior knowledge and new information
Prior ideas must be engaged and re-workedas new information
Learning is therefore an active process
Develop new ideas and concepts based upontheir existing knowledge.
Support teachers give to students toconstruct and extend skills
Experimental learning theories
How an experiences motivate individuals andtheir learning
Experiences change an individual’sknowledge
Social and constructivist theories of learning
New learning influences existing learning
Learning can only be facilitated: we cannotteach another person directly
Each person’s level of intelligence actuallycomprises a number of distinct faculties
Linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial,bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, andintrapersonal
Communities of Practice
Lave and Wenger
“The relational character of knowledge andlearning…the negotiated character ofmeaning, and … the concerned (engaged,dilemma-driven) nature of learning activity forthe people involved…there is no activity that isnot situated.”
Learning is most effective when it occurs incommunities
Learning is said to occur most effectivelywithin ‘communities of practice’
You: the learner…
What does your Learning Profile tell youabout learning?
My Learning Profile demonstrated that I wasa kinesthetic learner.
I am better preforming physical tasks ratherthan sitting in a lecture and taking notes.
I learn better visually and by being creative dueto the right hemisphere of my brain scoringhigher in the Whole Brain Quiz.
I enjoy art and music.
How can a teacher add value to a learningexperience?
A teacher can add value to a learningexperience by being engaging andknowledgeable towards students.
What are the qualities of effective teachers?
Qualities of an effective teacher:
Understanding and knowledge of what theyare teaching and the world around them
Make children excited about learning a
Encourage children to want to learn
Allow children to feel comfortable and safe inthe classroom
How do we measure learning?
Assessment Tasks, such as spelling tests,quizzes and games that monitor children's learning and their ability.
How do we encourage learning?
How do we enable learning?
Energetic and enthusiastic.
Knowledge and understanding.
Knowledge of history and the world.
How can we effectively assess learning?
Learning can be assessed effectively bypreforming assessment practices, such asspelling tests, quizzes etc. This enhances anindividuals learning because it monitors theirknowledge and understanding of what theyhave learnt, therefore enhancing learning.
Factors of Learning
What factors affect learning?
There are many factors that affect learning,emotions, social settings, cognitivedevelopment, experiences and the influencesof others and the environment.
Why is emotion an important factor affectinglearning?
Emotion is an important factor affectinglearning because emotion influences how aperson may think, feel or act resulting inlearning being affected. Emotion can distractfocus but in some cases in can cause anindividual to become focused.
Why is our social setting an influence onlearning?
The social setting in a classroom is importantto learning because learning is more effectivein communities with peers working together, tolearn from each other and work together tosolve problems. Social setting influence ourlearning because it allows us to gainknowledge from others.
How do people and relationships affectlearning?
People and relationships affect learningbecause they influence how individualsperceive certain values and beliefs, thechange in values in beliefs will create achange in others understandings.
What is lifelong learning?
Lifelong learning is developing skills andknowledge that is necessary for generalcapabilities and specific performance in worksituations.
Why learn discipline knowledge?
Discipline knowledge is important because itallows thinking to be expanded and to gain aninsight on knowledge retained from pastlearning experiences.
Why learn in groups?
It is beneficial to learn in groups because itinvolves collaborative learning, allowingcommunities/groups to acquire knowledgefrom one another and broaden understandingsand absorb information from others involvedin their groups.
What are the benefits of rich tasks?
The benefits of rich tasks are that rich tasksdraw on knowledge, skills and practices acrossdisciplines.
What is the difference between learning aboutICTs and learning with ICTs?
The different between learning about ICTs andlearning with ICTs is learning about ICTs is thelearner understandings how ICTs impactsociety, and how values and power are usedand communicated in technology. Whereas,learning with ICTs involves learning how tocommunicate, project management, publish,managing digital artefacts and problem solvingthrough the use of ICTs.
What is learning?
Knowledge gained through experiences andstudy to increase understanding
How do we learn?
By absorbing information and knowledge.Everyone learns differently.
When do we learn best?
We learn best when in a social setting becauseit is more effective to work in “communities”, itallows us to work together to createunderstanding.
Is learning the same for children and adults?
Children and adults do not learn in the sameway. Children absorb new knowledge and whatthey have learnt, compared to adults due tohaving previous experiences, knowledge andset views on specific topics to draw on.
What are learning outcomes?
The development of knowledge andunderstandings.
What is the process of learning?
Individual learns from study, experiences,teacher and absorbs information.
How is learning value based and driven by ourbeliefs?
Learning is influenced by our values and beliefsbecause they affect how we perceive things.
Prior experiences affect learning because itcauses an individual to develop certain viewsdue to the situations they've previously beeninvolved in.