Earth Science

Earth-Science-Mind-Map
The Atmosphere
Atmosphere = Mixture of gases
Layers
Troposphere
first layer
where weather occurs and airplanes fly
Stratosphere
where ozone layer is located
Mesosphere
less oxygen molecules
Thermosphere
block UV rays, Gamma rays and Xrays
Heat total energy
Temperature average kinetic energy
Solar Radiation
Visible light and Infrared make up more than
90% of radiation at Earth's surface
Albedo reflectivity of a surface
Weather
Water
Latent Heat
the amount of heat absorbed or released as
water changes state
Humidity
amount of moisture in the air
Pressure
Lower latitude, high pressure
Clouds
Frontal Lifting two large air masses of different
densities meet. Their boundary is a front. The
lighter warm air rises above the colder denser
 air.
Orographic Lifting air is forced to
rise over an obstruction such as
mountains.
Convergence Lifting collision of
 two air masses of similar temperature
forces some air upward since both air
masses cannot occupy the same
space.
Winds
horizontal movement of air that rises in
differences of air pressures
Volcanoes and other Mountains
Magma
molten rock below the surface
Basaltic
partial melting of asthenosphere
Andesitic
partial melting of mantle rocks
Rhyolitic
partial melting of continental crust
Lava
molten rock at the surface
Viscosity
resistance to flow
depends on temperature and
magma composition
Less silica = Low viscosity
More silica = High viscosity
Products of Volcanic Eruptions
Air
Volcanic Gases
water vapor, sulfur dioxide, carbon
dioxide
Tephra
represents particles blasted into air
by eruption
Lateral Blasts
can destroy objects
Land
Lava
Pyroclastic Flow
dense cloud formed from
combination of tephra and volcanic
gases
Lahars
mudflows
Landforms
Shield Volcanoes
broad, gentle slopes
built from many low viscosity lava
flows
Stratovolcanoes
most common volcano type
steeper slopes built from
alternating layers of tephra and
medium viscosity lava
Cinder cones
smallest volcanoes
built from more viscous magma
products
Plate Tectonics
Continental Drift
Continents have occupied Earth's surface in different locations in the past
Pangea
Laurasia
Wegener's Observations
Matching Features
Distribution of plants and animal
fossils
Continuous mountain belt
Opposing edges of continents fit
together
Paleoclimates
Glacial deposits
Contracting Earth
Planet is slowly cooling and
contracting as heat of formation is
lost
Evidence from the Seafloor
Seafloor Topography
Continental Shelf narrow, shallow
ocean surrounding continents
Abyssal Plain relatively level
seafloor
Continental Shelf narrow, shallow
ocean surrounding continents
Oceanic Ridge submarine
mountain range that is a source of
volcanic activity
Oceanic Trench narrow, deepest
portion of ocean seafloor
Rocks of the seafloor are younger
compared to continental rocks
Earthquakes found near oceanic
ridges and trenches
Earth's Magnetic Field
Has negative and positive poles
Direction the field points toward
the magnetic poles
Inclination the field points down in
the NH and up in the SH
Normal Polarity when negative
magnetic pole is near NP
Reverse Polarity when positive
magnetic pole is near NP
Plate Boundaries
Convergent
Ocean/Ocean
The older lithosphere is consumed in
subduction zones as 2 oceanic plates collide.
More silica = High viscosity
The oceanic plate gets consumed in the subduction zones, when it collides with continental plate
Ocean/Continent
Plates move toward each other
Divergent
Plates move apart
3 Stages:
Birth break up of continental
lithosphere
Youth narrow ocean forms
Maturity wide ocean
Transform
No lithosphere created nor
lithosphere destroyed
Plates move in opposite directions
Earthquakes
Megaearthquakes occur along
subduction zones
Fault
A fracture in the crust on which
movement has occured
Focus
location where movement begins on
fault
Epicenter
location on surface above the focus
Fault Scarp
step in land surface formed by
movement on the fault
3 types of fault:
Normal Fault
Reverse Fault
StrikeSlip Fault
Seismic Gap
segments of active faults that have
not experienced recent movements
Seismic Waves
Vibrations caused by earthquake
Seismograph instrument
Seismogram printed record
2 Forms:
Surface Waves
Rayleigh Waves
vertical movement of surface
Love Waves
sidetoside movement
Body Waves
Primary Waves
first to arrive
parallel to travel direction
S Waves
second to arrive
perpendicular to travel direction
can't pass through liquids
Magnitude
standard measure of the energy
released from an earthquake
Intensity
measure of the effects of an
earthquake
Earth and Universe
Origin of the Universe
Geocentric
Earth is the center of the planetary
system
Proposed by Ptolomy
Heliocentric
Sun is the center of the planetary
system
Proposed by Copernicus
Size of the Universe
Luminosity
Brightness of Pulsating Stars
Brighter stars = closer to Earth
Dimmer stars = farther from Earth
Doppler Effect
apparent change in the frequency
of sound waves or light waves due
to the motion of the source relative
to an observer
Red shift
used to determine the distance to
far away galaxies
Big Bang Theory
Universe began in rapid expansion
Stars and Planets
Stars
Stars vary in size and age
3 Elements: Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Carbon
Planets
Terrestrial Planets
Heavier, rocky planets closer to star
Jovian Planets
Lighter, gasrich planets farther
from star
Solar System
Sun
99.8%of total mass of the solar
system
Sunspots coldest region
Solar Flares result in disruption of
Sun's magnetic field
Solar wind stream of charged
particles emitted from sun's
magnetic field
Earth, Sun and Seasons
Tilt of Earth 23.5 degrees
Insolation
amount of solar energy reaching
Earth's surface
Unique Composition of Earth
Liquid Water
essential for life on Earth
Gravity and Protective Atmosphere
protects us from harmful UV rays
Lifesustaining gases
A strong magnetic field
Geologic Time
Superposition rocks at the bottom are
 the oldest
Crosscutting older rocks
may be cut by younger rocks or features
Inclusion Younger rocks may
incorporate
pieces of older rocks
Index Fossils species that existed
for a relatively short period of
geologic time and found over
large geographic areas are the
best for precise correlations
Phanerozoic eon, Cenozoic era Present
Weathering
Physical Weathering
Definition: represents the  disintegration of        
                rocks and minerals into smaller pieces
Unloading as overlying rocks erode, pressure is removed a process known as unloading and buried rocks expand upward
Wedging/ Frost Wedging when water gets into cracks and freezes, it expands and causes a rock to break apart
Growth of salt crystals in small openings occurs when minerals are precipitated as water containing salt moves through a crack
Chemical Weathering
Definition: decomposition of rock as a result of
the chemical breakdown of minerals
Dissolution occurs when minerals in a rock are dissolved by water
Carbonic Acid can dissolve certain rocks and
minerals
Hydrolysis occurs when hydrogen ions in water replace other ions in silicate minerals
Pollutants combine with rain to yield sulfuric
and nitric acid producing an even more acidic
solution termed acid rain
Oxidation occurs when oxygen frequently reacts with iron or other metals in rocks
The red or yellow coloration commonly observed in some rocks and soils is caused by iron oxide
Biological Weathering
Definition: disintegration of rocks as a
result of the action by living organisms
Macroscopic Processes                                                                    
       action of plant, roots, animal burrows, termites and other boring organisms that remove or break down rocks and minerals
Microscopic Processes                                                                              
       some plant microbial activity releases organic acidic compounds
Rates of Weathering
Rock Composition                                                              
           different minerals react to different chemical
weathering processes
Rock Properties                                                                      
        the presence of water in a rock promotes weathering
Climate                                                                                          
        climate varies systematically with latitude and elevation
Rocks and Minerals
Rocks are made of minerals
Atoms may have negative or
positive charge if they lose or gain
electrons
Ions atoms with different numbers of protons and electrons
Ionic bonds balance of negative
and positive charges
Covalent bonds sharing of
electrons between elements
Minerals are made of elements
Crystal Form arrangement of the faces
of a crystal to form a particular shape
Cleavage minerals break along
planes of weakness defined by
atomic structure
Hardness minerals ranked by their
relative hardness using Mohs
Hardness Scale
Color minerals have characteristic
colors
Luster how light reflects from
mineral
Streak color of mark on unglazed
porcelain
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