Introduction to Computers and Programming

Introduction to Computers and Programming
Objectives Overview
Explain why computer literacy
is vital to success in today’s
world
Define the term, computer, and describe the
relationship between data and information
Describe the five
components of a computer
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages that users
experience when working with computersDefine
Define the term, network, and identify
benefits of sharing resources on a network
Discuss the uses of the
Internet and World Wide Web
Distinguish between system
software and application software
Differentiate among types, sizes, and
functions of computers in each category
Describe the role of each element
in an information system
Explain how home users, small office/home office
users, mobile users, power users, and enterprise
users each interact with computers
Discuss how society uses computers in education,
finance, government, health care, science,
publishing, travel, and manufacturing
What Is a Computer?
A computeris an electronic device, operating under
the control of instructions stored in its own memory
The Components of a Computer
A computer contains many electric,
electronic, and mechanical components
known as hardware
Input Device
Allows you to enter data and instructions into a compuer
Output Device
Hardware component that conveys
information to one or more people
System Unit
Case that contains the electronic components of
the computer that are used to process data
Storage Device
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Communications Device
Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and
information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Using Computers
Advantages of Using Computers
Speed
Reliability
Consistency
Storage
Communications
Disadvantages of Using Computers
Health Risks
Violation of Privacy
Public Safety
Impact on Labor Force
Impact on Environment
Green computing : involves reducing the electricity consumed
and environmental waste generated when using a computer
Strategies include
Recycling
Regulating manufacturing processes
Extending the life of computers
Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers
Networks and the Internet
A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together,
often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media
The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of
businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
People use the Internet for a
variety of reasons
Communicate
Research and Access Information
Shop
Bank and Invest
Online Trading
Entertainment
Download Music
Share Videos
Web Application
A social networking Web site encourages members to share their interests,
ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users
Elements of an Information System
Hardware
Software
Data
People
Procedures
Computer Software
Software, also called a program, tells the computer
what tasks to perform and how to perform them
Installing is the process of setting up software to work
with the computer, printer, and other hardware
A programmer develops software or writes the instructions
that direct the computer to process data into information
Categories of Computers
Personal computers
A personal computer can perform all of its input,
processing, output, and storage activities by itself
Two popular architectures are
the PC and the Apple
Desktop computer
Mobile computers and mobile devices
Mobile Computer
Personal computer you can
carry from place to place
Examples include notebook computers,
laptop computers, and Tablet PCs
Mobile Device
Computing device small enough to hold in your hand
Examples include smart phones, PDAs, handheld
computers, portable media players, and digital cameras
Game consoles
A game console is a mobile computing device designed
for single‐player or multiplayer video games
Servers
A server controls access to the
hardware, software, and other resources
on a network
Provides a centralized storage area for
programs, data, and information
Mainframes
A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful
computer that can handle hundreds or
thousands of connected users simultaneously
Supercomputers
A supercomputer is the fastest,
most powerful computer
Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more
than one quadrillion instructions in a single second
Embedded computers
An embedded computer is a special‐purpose computer
that functions as a component in a larger product
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