Inventions Made Between 1750 and 1900

Inventions Made Between 1750 and 1900
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?
Success of overseas colonies
Masses of resources drawn from
empires as a result
Could produce goods cheaply
and sell for huge profit
Colonies provided new markets for
manufactured goods
Success of the slave trade
Slaves bought in Africa and sold to
tobacco and cotton plantations in
Cotton and tobacco was in turn
sent back to Britain to be sold
Changes to energy, machinery, and scale
Human and animal labour replaced by steam
Steam followed by gas and electricity
New inventions and techniques that
changed the way coal and steel were
Many small workshops employing few people
turned into large factories employing hundreds of
Change to transport
Creation of railways and canals allowed
materials to be moved quickly and
The agricultural revolution in Britain
New machines seed drilling machine
which allowed seeds to be sown
Invention of mechanical ploughs,
reaping machines and threshing
Farm workers became replaced by
machines had to move to cities for
industrial work
More efficient uses of land
Inclosure movement the use of fences and
boundaries to divide properties amongst people
rather than the use of common land
The growth and extent of
the British Empire from 1750 to 1900
By 1900 Britain's empire covered
a quarter of the world's land
Two stages old colonial system
and new imperialism
From 1750 mid 19th C, main reason for empire
building was to improve trade. The aim was to set
up colonies in the Americas and Asia to provide
Towards end of nineteenth century the empire became popular with
the British people. Slavery abolished and colonies began to want
selfgovernment. Empire continued to grow into Africa (the 'white
man's burden').
Raw materials Britain obtained
from its Empire and the places they came from
Wool from Australia
Sugar from Jamaica
Cotton and tea from India
Key inventors and their inventions
how did they affect transport and manufacturing?
Jethro Tull invents mechanical
seed drill c.1701
Newcomen engine invented 171012
Britain's first canal 1757
James Hargreaves invents
spinning jenny 1764
James Watt condensing steam
engine 176375
World's first railway line in Britain 1830
How industrialisation contributed to the
development of Britain and Australia
Coal, textiles, transport
Mining increased
Employment increased
Technology improved production
Textiles Wool became a boom industry in
Australia with the development of the Merino
Factory system and new machines made
the production of textiles quicker, more
Railway and canals allowed for the movement of
goods and people to be quicker and more
Population movement
during the Industrial Revolution
People moved from country
villages to towns and cities
Wealthy people emigrated to other countries in the
Empire to try and build business (eg Australia) as
free settlers
Other people were forced to move to cities in
search for work agricultural revolution left many
people without jobs
Changes to the way of life
With the move to towns and cities living
conditions got very crowded and
Water was dirty, food was
increasingly expensive and poor
eg. The River Thames was so polluted it could no
longer sustain any fish or plant life yet people
still bathed in it and drank from it!
Whole families of up to ten lived
in a single room without running
There was often no running water and sewage
systems were not invented until the early
Working conditions
There were very little safety considerations
Workers were considered an expendable source
it was cheaper to replace a worker than install
safety devices
Children were forced to work from
the age of three to help provide
Children were often used in cotton factories to
clean out clogged machines many lost limbs or
their lives in the process
Women and children preferred as workers as they
were paid less and could get into tight spaces in
Those who fell asleep severely punished if they
were lucky enough to escape death by falling into
a machine
'The Poor Law'
Positive and negative
impacts of the Industrial Revolution
Increased use of fossil fuels and increased
emission of greenhouse gases led to smog and
air pollution
Increase in consumption and waste land fill
Increased awareness for sustainability
New technologies
Population growth
Water pollution
Forest clearing
Shortterm and longterm
impacts of the Industrial Revolution
Global landscape growth and change
Social revolution
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