History of Malaysia
Here is a mind map of Malaysia's history.Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country. On the south of Thailand lies Peninsular Malaysia. The Sabah and Sarawak are situated across the South China Sea and structure part of the island of Borneo. The small country of Brunei and the Kalimantan that is an Indonesian part of the island, is bordered by them.
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History of Malaysia
The Early History
The first-ever inhabitants to exist in Malaya showed up as early as 8,000 BCE.
Later farmers of the stone age came to Malaya and uprooted them. The farmers brought the burn and slash agriculture practices.
After 1,000 BCE farmers that used metal arrived.
In the second and third centuries, centralized states emerged in Malaya.
Malayan progress was vigorously affected by India. The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were likewise brought into Malaya around then.
In the 7th and 8th centuries, the state of Srivijaya of Sumatra rose to overwhelm quite a bit of Malaya.
It was a kingdom in Sumatra with Palembang as its capital.
The success of Srivijaya depended on trade with India and China.
Srivijaya ruled until the 11th century.
A man named Parameswara established it at the end of the 14th century.
He started to rule the Island of Singapore called Temasek, However, he was overthrown by the Thais.
Islam initially arrived in the region during the 8th century.
During the 15th century, the new settlement succeeded and prospered named Melaka.
In 1511, the Portuguese noticed and launched an expedition which was led by Alfonso de Albuquerque to seize it. Melaka soon falls for it, however, the son of Melaka later found Johor.
Johor and Dutch Period
Johor became one of the powerful trading states.
In the mid 16th century, Johor made a few unsuccessful attempts to recover Melaka. In the mid 17th century, they made an alliance with the Dutch against the Portuguese.
After two failed attempts, in 1641 the Dutch laid attack on Melaka once more with the help of Johor. After a terrible siege, Melaka finally falls for the Dutch.
In the 17th century, the Dutch drove out the remaining Europeans. For the rest of the 17th century, the district was ruled by the two companions.
in 1699 Sultan Mahmud was killed. This became the reason for the end of Johor's power.
In the 18th century a new power emerged, the Bugis people originated from the Sulawesi.
They started to settle in the region of Johor at the end of the 17th century.
Raja Kecil in 1717 claimed that he was the son of Sultan Mahmud and along with his followers seized Johor’s capital.
Raja Kecil Abu Jalil was murdered and the Bugis turned on Raja Kecil seizing the capital and announcing Sulaiman, the son of Abu Jalil as the ruler.
In the late 18th century the British East India Company exchanged with and controlled a part of India. Around then they started searching for a base in Malaya.
In 1786 Penang was captured and Georgetown was established by the British under Francis Light.
In 1800 they took over Province Wellesley. In 1819 a British trading port was established by Sir Stamford Raffles.
According to the treaty of London, in 1824, the Dutch and British split the state between them and the Dutch gave up Melaka to the British.
Control of Sarawak by the British started in 1841. In 1840 a man named James Brooke assisted the Sultan of Brunei to pound a rebellion.
As a prize, he was an offered area to rule and in 1841 he has conceded the title of Raja of Sarawak. Brooke's region was broadened in 1853.
Treaty of Pangkor
In 1853, there was a boom in tin exports as the British removed the duties on imports of tin from Malaya.
In 1869 the opening of the Suez-canal and the steamships further increased the businesses making Chinese flock to Malaya for work.
In 1871, the Sultan of Perak expired and there was a fight about who should succeed him.
China’s secret societies argued about who might control the tin mines. It disrupted the tin supplies to Britain.
Until 1874 the British limited themselves to trade and tried not to get engaged with Malayan legitimate issues. The treaty of Pangkor was the start of British political control of Malaya.
British Malaya Period
The British slowly expanded their rule over Malaya. More states had to acknowledge the protection of the British.
In 1888 North Borneo, Brunei, and Sarawak and became British protectorates.
In the early 20th century the British expanded their impact over the Northern Malay states.
In the 20th-century rubber industry grew in Malaya. The Malayan tin industry additionally succeeded and an oil industry started in Singapore.
During the 1920s the Malayan economy was affluent however in the 1930s, during the depression, trades fell.
Japanese Rule in Malaya
In 1941 the Japanese attacked the Malay Peninsula and they rapidly assaulted it.
In 1942 the last British soldiers gave up across the straits into Singapore Island.
This was a military tragedy for the British. In the meantime, Japanese soldiers attacked Borneo.
They caught Kuching in 1941 and Jesselton in 1942.
In 1944, when the Japanese were defeated, the British government chose to join all the Malayan states into a single state called the Malayan Union excluding Singapore.
There was a lot of resistance to this plan and it was rejected.
in 1948 the Federation of Malaya was shaped. Malayan nationalism was growing and as a result, in 1926 Kesatuan Melayu Singapura was framed. Others immediately followed it.
In 1946 Malay associations consolidated to frame the Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu.
The Malayan Communist Party was established in 1930. In 1948 they started to assault European estate managers. Subsequently, the government introduced the state of emergency.
In 1955 the Reid Commission was formed to set up a constitution for Malaya. Malaya became independent in1957.
State of Emergency
In the 1960s there was tension among non-Malays and Malays. It ended in viciousness after an election in 1969.
The opposition party acquired seats while the governing party lost seats. The different sides got into a fight. Following two days of brutality, the government announced a state of emergency, and parliament was suspended.
Gradually the parliament was resumed in 1971. The Malaysian government at that point embraced another policy that was effective.