Indonesian citizenship and its characteristics

Summary of Understanding Citizenship Education
Characteristic Of Indonesia
Indonesian's Language is Bahasa
Indonesian's Flag is Red and White
Indonesian's Anthem is Indonesia Raya
Indonesian's Symbol is Pancasila
Indonesian's Constitution is UUD 1945
The Constitution Of Indonesia
August 18th,1945 - December 27th, 1949 Period
When the Republic of Indonesia was proclaimed on August 17th,1945, the new Republic did not yet have a constitution. A day later on August 18th,1945, the Draft Law was passed by PPKI as the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia after undergoing several processes.
December 27th,1949 - August 17th,1950 Period
The journey of the new state of the Republic of Indonesia did not escape from the undermines of the Dutch who wanted to return to power in Indonesia. As a result, the Netherlands tried to establish countries such as East Sumatra, East Indonesia, East Java, and so on. In line with these Dutch efforts, there was the 1st Dutch aggression in 1947 and the 2nd aggression in 1948. And this resulted in the holding of the RTC which gave birth to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia. So that the Constitution, which should apply to the entire Indonesian state, only applies to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia.
August 17th,1950 - July 5th,1959 Period
The federal period of the 1949 Constitution of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia was a temporary change, because in fact the Indonesian nation since August 17th,1945 wanted a unitary character, the Republic of the United States of Indonesia did not last long because of the merger with the Republic of Indonesia. This resulted in the diminishing authority of the government of the United States of Indonesia, and finally an agreement was reached to re-establish the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. For a unitary state to be founded, it is clear that there is a need for a new constitution and for this a joint committee was formed to compile a draft constitution which was later passed on August 12th,1950 by the working body of the central national committee and by the House of Representatives. and the Senate of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia on August 14th,1950 and the new constitution was enacted on August 17th,1950.
July 5th,1959 - Present Period
With the Presidential decree of July 5th,1959, the 1945 Constitution was enacted again. And the change of the Old Order Provisional People's Consultative Assembly from 1959-1965 became the New Order Provisional People's Consultative Assembly. The change was made because the Old Order Provisional People's Consultative Assembly was deemed not to reflect the pure and consistent implementation of the 1945 Constitution.
Indonesian's Local Language
1. Aabinomin Papua
2. Abai Kalimantan
3. Abrap Papua
4. Abui (Aboa) Nusa Tenggara Timur
5. Abun Papua
6. Abun Gii (Abun Jii) Papua
7. Abun Ji (Karon Pantai) Papua
8. Aceh Sumatra
9. Adagum (Citak Wagabus) Papua
10. Adang Nusa Tenggara Timur
11. Afilaup Papua
12. Aframa Papua
13. Air Matoa Papua
14. Airo Papua
15. Airoran Papua
16. Ale Papua
17. Alor Nusa Tenggara Timur
18. Alune Maluku
19. Amathamit Papua
20. Ambai Papua
21. Ambalau Maluku
22. Ambel Papua
23. Amber Papua
24. Amungkal Papua
25. Anakalang Nusa Tenggara Timur
26. Anasi Papua
27. Ansus-Papuma Papua
28. Anus Papua
29. Aoheng (Penihing) Kalimantan
30. Arakam Papua
31. Arandai Papua
32. Are Papua
33. Arguni (Taver) Papua
34. Armati Sarma Papua
35. Arubos Papua
36. Arui-Mor Papua
37. As Papua
38. Asilulu Maluku
39. Asmat Bets Mbup Papua
40. Asmat Safan Papua
41. Asmat Sawa Papua
42. Asmat Sirat Papua
43. Asmat Unir Sirau Papua
44. Asmat Waijens Papua
45. Atam (Temma) Papua
46. Auye Papua
47. Awban Papua
48. Awe (Maweyo, Kaburi) Papua
49. Awera Papua
50. Awyu Anggai Papua
Indonesia Raya is the national anthem of the Republic of Indonesia. This song was first introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Soepratman, on October 28, 1928 during the Second Youth Congress in Batavia. This song marks the birth of a nationalist movement across the archipelago in Indonesia that supports the idea of one "Indonesia" as the successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than being split into several colonies.
Indonesian was born on October 28th,1928. At that time, young people in all corners of the archipelago were gathering in youth meetings. The meeting resulted in three pledges which were named the Youth Pledge.
The first red and white flag or the first Indonesian flag is the Sang Saka Merah Putih flag. The red and white flag was sewn by Fatmawati. The Indonesian flag was first flown on August 17th,1945 at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56, Jakarta after Soekarno read the text of the Indonesian proclamation.
The birthday of Pancasila on June 1st,1945 is one of the important histories that should be remembered by the Indonesian people. In accordance with its meaning, Pancasila has five points which are the basic principles for the Indonesian nation. These five points are also listed in the 4th paragraph of the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution.
Historically, the 1945 Constitution was drafted from May 29, 1945 to June 16, 1945 by the investigation agency for the preparation for Indonesian independence (BPUPKI) or in Japanese known as Dokuritsu Zyunbi Tyoosakai, which consists of 21 members, chaired by Ir. Soekarno and Drs. Moh, Hatta as deputy chairman
The Constitution's Change (Amandemen)
One of the successes achieved by the Indonesian nation during the reform period was constitutional reform. Constitutional reform is seen as a necessity and an agenda that must be carried out because the 1945 Constitution before the amendments was deemed insufficient to regulate and direct the administration of the state according to the expectations of the people, the formation of good governance, and to support the enforcement of democracy and human rights. Amendments to the 1945 Constitution were carried out in stages and became one of the agendas of the MPR Session from 1999 to 2002. The first amendment was made at the 1999 MPR General Session. The direction of the first amendment to the 1945 Constitution was to limit the power of the President and strengthen the position of the House of Representatives (DPR) as a legislative body. The second amendment was made at the MPR Annual Session in 2000. The second change resulted in the formulation of amendments to articles covering matters of state territory and the division of regional government, incorporating the first change in terms of strengthening the position of the DPR, and detailed provisions on human rights.
The third amendment was stipulated at the 2001 MPR Annual Session. This stage change amends and or adds to the provisions of articles on the basic principles of statehood, state institutions and relations between state institutions, as well as provisions on General Elections. Meanwhile, the fourth amendment was made at the MPR Annual Session in 2002. The fourth amendment includes provisions on state institutions and relations between state institutions, the abolition of the Supreme Advisory Council (DPA), education and culture, economy and social welfare, and transitional rules and additional regulations. The four stages of amendments to the 1945 Constitution cover almost the entire material of the 1945 Constitution. The original text of the 1945 Constitution contained 71 provisions, while the changes made resulted in 199 provisions. Currently, of the 199 provisions in the 1945 Constitution, only 25 (12%) of the provisions have not changed. The rest, as many as 174 (88%) of the provisions were new or changed material. From a qualitative side, the amendments to the 1945 Constitution are of a very basic nature because they change the principle of people's sovereignty which was originally fully implemented by the MPR to be implemented according to the Constitution. This causes all state institutions in the 1945 Constitution to be equal and exercise people's sovereignty within the scope of their respective powers. Another change is from the very large power of the President (concentration of power and responsibility upon the President) to the principle of mutual control and balance (checks and balances). These principles affirm the ideals of the state to be built, namely a democratic constitutional state. After successfully making constitutional changes, the next step that must be carried out is the implementation of the amended 1945 Constitution. The implementation of the 1945 Constitution must be carried out starting from the consolidation of legal norms to the practice of national and state life. As a basic law, the 1945 Constitution must become a basic reference so that it really lives and develops in the administration of the state and the life of its citizens (the living constitution).
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