A mind map about Cell Signaling and Intercellular Communication.
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Generic Signalling Pathway
Signal : ligand, molecule that binds to specific site on another molecule
Eg : Hormones, Neurotransmitter, Growth Factor, Cytokines, Antigens
Membrane Signaling events
Concept of lock and Key, allow molecule of particular shape to trigger change in chemical activity
Receptor : G-protein coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinase, receptor guanylate cyclase, adenylate cyclase, phospholipase
Eg : Cyclic AMP, Calcium, inositol triphosphate, nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, diacyglycerol
Eg ; Nitric oxide synthase, Guanylate cyclase, Calmodulin, Phosphodiesterase, CRE, CREB, Protein kinase, Protein Phosphatase
Altered metabolism, altered gene expression or Altered cell shape or motility
Type of Receptor
alter proteins function
Nitric Oxide - directly activates enzymes
alters gene expression
superfamily : Steroid Hormones, Thyroid Hormones, retinoids, Vitamin D
Cell surface receptor
Ion Channel Linked
channel protein in plasma membrane that can open and close in response to signal from ligand
important in functioning nervous system
response to extracellular signal proteins that promote growth, proliferation, differentiation, or survival of cells in animal tissues
Receptor tyrosine kinases
associate with intracellular proteins that have tyrosine kinase activity
Receptorlike tyrosine phosphatases
remove phosphate groups from tyrosines of specific intracellular signaling proteins
Receptor serine kinases phosphorylate
Receptor guanylyl cyclases
catalyze production of cyclic GMP in cytosol
activate 'two-component' signaling pathway, transfer phosphate to 2nd intracellualr signaling protein
2nd Messenger & Intracellular Signaling Pathway
second messenger function is to amplify the strength of the signal
modified ATP >stimulate G protein receptor > activate G protein > activate enzyme in membrane plasma
enzyme convert ATP into cyclic AMP > activate protein kinase
protein kinase phosphorylate other protein
another enzyme can inactivate cAMP
toxin release by bacteria keep G protein active and stimulate cell lining intestine secrete large amount of water and salt
nitric oxide (NO)
soluble and highly reactive gas produced by natural chemical and physical reaction
small and diffusible through membrane plasma
improve immune system
major factor control penile erection
play role in development, neuron to neuron signaling and contribute to formation of memories.
can inhibit oxygen consumption by mitochondria (firefly flash)
how Nitric acid and cyclic GMP related?
Nitric acid synthetase (NOS) synthesize NO from L-arginine to form L-citrulline and nitric oxide
NO diffuse out of blood vessel and enter muscle cell
NO bind with nitric acid receptor and convert GTP to cyclic GMP
cyclic GMP bind to protein kinase G
sperm nucleic acid synthesis
Type of Cell Signalling
Signaling involves contact between ligand-receptor binding of two cells.
Signals secrete by one cell and diffuse over short ranges to bind with receptor of neighboring cells.
Signals secretes by a cell and bind to receptor of the same cell.
Holds epithelial cells together by connecting integral membrane protein to other membrane cell.
Eg: Epithelial tissue
Firmly bond adjacent cells together to prevent leaks within epithelial sheets.
Eg: Cells of gastrointestinal and bladder.
Connecting cells by providing tiny space between plasma membranes of two cells.
Eg: Heart and smooth muscle of gut.
Anchoring two closely adjacent non-touching cells. Mostly in considerable stretching tissue.
Eg: Cardiac muscle.
Connect cells to extracellular material.
Cells secreting substances by exocytosis.
Eg: Sweat glands, Saliva glands
Entire cells disintegrate to secrete substances.
Eg: Mammary gland
A portion of plasma membrane containing secretion, bud off the cells.
Eg: Sebaceous glands, meibomian glands of eyelids
communication network between cell