Teaching English to students in tourism

four categories of competences
“soft skills” or “people skills” being transferable from one field to another
Luca, et al. and Allison
comprise teamwork,
problem solving and decision-making skills, willingness to succeed, assertiveness, but also concern for quality, active listening skills, diplomacy persuasion skills
paramount for students’ future
careers, being very much sought for on the labour market
diplomacy, positive attitude and commitment, professional communication
skills, adaptability
E. Frendo attitude, behaviour, believes and values which exist within national or organisational cultures and which help people communicate
successfully with people from other cultures
Hofstede et al dimensions which are commonly used when
comparing cultures
E.Frendo focuses on the basic elements that together form a language, (phonology, grammar and vocabulary)
A.Vizental there used to be a prejudice according to which vocabulary teaching was equivalent to providing students with long lists of isolated words, generally organized in semantic fields, but not contextualized, which had to be learned by heart
high vs. low context,
femininity vs. masculinity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, monochronic vs. polychronic conception of time, individualism vs. collectivism
occulistics (eyecontact), kinesics (body language), proxemics (body distance), haptics (touch), or paralanguage (the way we use tone,intonation, turn-taking or speed of talking)
types of activities to enhance the linguistic competence
word formation, verbs in
brackets, multiple matching, translations, find words/ phrases for explanations given, open cloze, error correction, information transfer, multiple choice
E. Frendo the discourse competence always situates language in use, involving people’s ability to generate
appropriate language in different contexts corresponding to professional communication.
the ability of recognizing language and language
patterns, consequently encompassing all
the four language skills
activities to enhance discourse competence:
dual/ multiple choice,
yes/no questions, open ended questions,
information transfer, blank completion, multiple matching, filling in a grid, taking notes, (re)creating a message based on notes taken.