PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
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Individual Assignment (Mind Mapping)
Course: MKT310 / Principles of Public Relations
Course: MKT310 / Principles of Public Relations
Similar Mind Maps
PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
CHAPTER 6 : Public Relations Process
Research is the systematic collection & interpretation to increase understanding ( fraiser seitel 1998 ). Research as the controlled, objective & systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing & understanding ( broom & dozier 1990 ).
A method frequently used for PR purpose is the opinion poll or attitude study interview done through questionaires( lindenmann 1993 ) research method can informal ( qulitative ) or formal (quantitative ).
Informal Research Method1)The most common informal research method.2)Organizatinal material such as basic material that includes the organization's policy statement ( annual report, papmhlets ).3)Library research including references book, other scholarly publications & books journal about particular subject.- online database- content analysis- interviewing- focus group interview
Importance of PR Research
•Increase fragmentation of audience into groups that have specific interest and concern.•To identify and increase top management relations and personal contact with the external public.•Research helps PR convey accurate information about the organization to the public.•Research helps PR to possess valuable facts to carry out PR projects.•To create a good PR plan with a starting point that could be determined through proper research.•Through research, PR practitioners are able to gather relevant data or information for organization’s record.•Through research, PR practitioners can prepare long-term planning or pro-active steps to improve present situation and also for the future.•To prevent from wasting time, effort and money in implementing any program that is not readily solved by extensive PR program.
Categories of PR Research
•Environmental Monitoring Program.•Public Relations Audit.•Communication Audits.•Social Audit.•Evaluations Research.•Gate – keeping Research.
Formal Research Method1) Use when PR practitioner want more dependable, precise responses with scietific sampling methods.- telephone polls- mall surveys- mall intercept study- face to face interview study- share cost or omnibus studies- panel studies
Planning and Programming
PLANNING - the purpose of making something to happen or prevent it.•The best planning would be done within the framework of a long term plan includes strategies for any conveniences occurred.
Importance of Planning and Programming
1)To estimate the working hours and other cost involved or budgeting.2)To set targets for public relations overall operations.3)To select priorities which will control the number and timing of different operations in the program.4)To decide the feasibility of carrying out the declared objectives.
Step in Planning and Programming
1)Define the problem2)Identify objective3)Identify audiences or public4)Schedule5)Budget6)Media selection7)Evaluation
Taking Action and Communication
Communication The science and practice of transmitting information to disseminate or exchange information, signals or messages in any way, as in talking, gesturing or writing.Action The process of doing or acting on something. For instance, if you are not happy with the toll increase then you will write to the Minister Of Transport about your dissatisfaction.
Channel of Communication
- Electronic Media- Print Media
Process of Communication
Five basic element of communication process:-The source / sender / encoder-Message-Channel-Receiver / decoder-Feedback
Effectiveness of Communication Process
1)The communicator must have adequate information.2)The communicator must have credibility in the eyes of the receiver.3)The communicator must be able to transmit information in codes the receiver can comprehend.4)The communicator must use a channel that will carry the message to the receiver.5)The message must be within the receivers capacity to comprehend and relevant to receiver’s interest or needs.6)The message must motivate the receiver’s self interest and cause a response.
Barriers of Effective Communication
1)Filtering -Manipulation of information.2)Selective perception -Receivers being selective according to his / her needs.3)Emotions -Feeling at time of communication.4)Language -Demographic factor influence the language a persons used.5)Differences in perceptions -Ways of interpreting based on individual personal experiences.6)Differences in semantics -Different meaning of words.7)Differences in status -Societal standing influence the quality of communication.8)Differences in organization climate -Organization’s communication policy whether practicing close or open policy.9)Business jargons -Term that are peculiar to some people.10)Stereotyping-Differences in preconceived judgment or opinion ( bias ).
Evaluation of the program
Evaluation is the process which involves assessing the preparation,implementation and results / impact of a public relations program.
Prerequisite for Evaluation
There are three prerequisite for doing an evaluation :-1) PR and management should agree on criteria to use to evaluate success in attaining objectives.2) Do not wait until end of the public relations program to determine how the program will be evaluated.3) The key to evaluating what people learned from a program is to measure the same variables that were measured before the program begin.
Purpose of Evaluation
- To determine the accomplishment of program goals.- Determine problem in progress and improved them.- To serve as feedback for improving similar program in the near future.- Systematic way to do assessment of program and its result.
Method of Evaluation
1. Publicity gained.- Through compilation of paper clipping on program or campaign.2. Opinion Polls.- Through a benchmark survey.3. Unobtrusive indicators.- Indications on company’s performance based from various sources.- E.g. Sales figures.4. Interview or questionnaires.- Face to face interview or meetings to find out how people feel or think.5. News monitoring .- Obtain through compilation of press clippings.
CHAPTER 7 : Public Relations in Business and Industry
Areas in Corporate Public Relation Practice
5 Element in any Strategic Program:1)Survey employee attitude regularly.2)Be consistent3)Personalize communication4)Be candid5)Be innovative
Problem in Employee Relations
-How to maintain strong public relations front line.-How to get volunteer readers/listener/viewers.
Important of Employee Relations
•Employee understanding of their role in the organization.•Clarifications of management policies.•Emplee well-being and safety.•Recognition of employee achievement.
Support Programs:•Crime prevention•Employment•Environmental programs•Clean-up and beautification•Recycling•Restoration
•To inform the community about the company policies.•To promote the welfare of a community.•To provide culture leadership.•To promote community health.•To establish a company as an important factor in community.
Media of Communication with the Community
•Advertising•Publicity•Public Speaking•Annual Report
3 Basic Resources : •The Companies•The Public Large•Consumer Leaders
•Keeping old customers•Attracting New Customers•Marketing New Item or Services•Reducing Cost
Consumer Relation Function
•Publicing news and event.•Promoting establish products or services.•Creating a favorable image.•Arranging for public appearances.•Probing public opinion in market areas.
Consumer Relation Philosophy
•Believes that consumer has the right to know.•Believes that consumer has the right to choose.•Believes in consumer right to be heard.•Believes the consumer has right to find advertised special in the store.
The requirement:•Be effective.•Be honest accurate and prudent.•Be knowledgeable in specific phase of communication.•Have ability to convince and motivate others.•Have planning skills.
•To raise the price earning of company stock.•Even unjustified fluctuations in price of shares.•To prepare the ground for new issue price.•To avoid the imposition of tax.
Main Purpose :•To secure goodwill between organization and the ruling government.•New laws or policies by government may give great impact on the organization.
Communication Activities with the Government
•Fact-finding•Liaison•Information giving•Advocacy•Non-business organizations
Type of Image Building
•The Mirror Image•The Current Image•The Wish Image•The Multiple Image•The Corporate Image
Form of Corporate Identity
Determining An Organizations Image : •Corporate name•Logo•Trade character•Corporate building•House colour•Promotional items•Uniforms,badges,flags
Determining An Organization Image
•Everything that it does.•Everything that is says.•Public or people think and believe what it to be.
Effect of an Issue Management
•An individual organization•A whole industry•A public interest
Issue Management Process
•Predict problems•Anticipate threats•Minimize surprises•Resolve issues•Prevent crises
5 Basic Step In Issue Management
•Issue identification•Issue analysis•Strategy options•Action plan•Evaluation
Issue Management Strategies
•Containment: emerging issue•Shaping: one has media attention,and therefore,is on public agenda•Coping: issues that face legislative,regulatory or interest action
Sign To Inpending Crisis
•Escalating in intensity.•Falling under close media.•Interfering with normal operations.•Damaging a company's bottom line.
Principle In Crisis Communication
•Speak first and often.•Do not speculate.•Stay with the facts.•Be open, concerned and defensive.•Do not war with the media.
Type of Crisis
•Public perception•Sudden market shift•Product failure•Top management succession•Cash•Industrial relations•Hostile takeover
CHAPTER 8 : Publicity and Media Relations
Information about an event, an individual or group, or a product, disseminated through the news media and other channels to attract favorable public notice
How to Gain Publicity
1)Publicity is gained by dealing directly with media ,either by initiating the communication or by reacting to inquiries. •Publicity tells your organization’s story through some form of media. •Messages about product, service, person or idea is prepared strictly within parameters of broadcast news. •This messages is distributed to news department without any form of payment. •Publicity is uncontrolled information that is subject to the new editors’ review and change. 2)PR deals with editorial department not advertising department. 3)PR story is published because it is worth printing. 4)Reporters rely on Public Relations personnel to get news because they don’t have access to top executives of an organization. 5)Successful publicity events have real news value; appeal to media gatekeepers, offer photo, video or sound recording opportunities and communicate the source’s intended message.
Factor of Publicity
1)Minimal cost •Publicity cost only the time and effort expanded by public relations personnel and management in the media placement’s attempt. 2)Endorsement Value •Perceived to carry the endorsement of the publication in which it appears. This translate to credibility of the organization.
Tools of Publicity
1. Press Releases: The press release is the basic building block of a publicity programme concerned with story placement. This is where the important information about the product or services is summarized in a way that will catch the media’s attention. Just as the marketer would customize the advertising message for each target, he needs to customize press releases for the various media he contacts. 2. Fact Sheets: A press release should be written so it can be used without any editing. That means all the relevant information must be included. There may be additional important information that doesn’t really fit into the press release. That’s where the fact sheet comes in. Fact sheets include more detailed information on the product, its origins, and its particular features. 3. Press Kits/ Advertisements: The press kit pulls together all the press releases, fact sheets and accompanying photographs about the product into one neat package. A comprehensive folder can serve as an attention-getter and keep the provided materials organised. 4. Video News Releases: The video news release is the video equivalent of a press release. Prepared for use by television stations, the typical video news release runs about 90 seconds and can be used to highlight some important features of the product. These are called infomercials. 5. Employee/Member Relation Programme: An organization’s employees are an extremely important internal public. Corporate public relations people often spend a great deal of time in developing employee communication programmes, including regular newsletter, informational bulletin boards and internet postings. In service organisations these kinds of activities can be used to support brand communication efforts.
6. Community Relations Programme: It is critical that companies maintain the role of good community citizens within the markets where they have offices and manufacturing facilities. Many companies actively encourage their employees to take part in community organisations, and local corporations are often major sponsors of community events and activities such as art presentations, blood donation drives and educational activities. Tata group of companies highlight their community relationship based communications for building a strong brand image within the local community and stakeholders at large. 7. Financial Relations Programme: Most of the brand-marketing organisations are publicly held companies. Financial relations have become a key aspect of public relations activity. Down¬turns in company earnings quickly lead to decline in stock prices, leading to the exit of top executives. Financial relations people are responsible for establishing and maintaining relationships with the investment community, including industry analysers stock-brokers and journalists specializing in financial reporting. 8. Events: Companies can draw attention to new products or other company activities by arranging special events like news conferences, seminars, exhibits, contests, anniversaries, sponsorship in sports and cultural events. 9. Publications: Companies rely on extensively on published materials to reach and influence their target markets. These include annual reports, brochures, articles, magazines etc.
Main Media Categories
1)Newspaper 2)Newsletter 3)Magazines 4)Radio 5)Television
Characteristics of Good Spokesperson
•Has the knowledge of the topic. •Understand the organization’s overall objectives and strategies. •Have ability to tell she or he knows. •The confidence of top management. •A desire to do the interview.
•We need to know how to work with the media. •Knowing how to work with each medium. •Producing content for each medium while keeping in mind their deadlines, their style requirements, their audiences.
Importance of Media Relations
•Build confidence in your organization’s integrity. •Build a recognition factor. •Establish a personal relationship.
Roles of Good Media Relations
1)Cultip, Center & Broom, 1994 •Shoot squarely •Give services •Do not beg or carp •Do not ask for kills •Do not flood the media 2)Michael Owen Schwager, 1998 •Always tell the truth •Know your outlet before call •Attitude-wise •Believe in your story •Don’t waste their time
CHAPTER 9 : Ethics in Public Relations
Code of Ethics
•Brown (1986), describes ethics "as a conduct consistent with a set of values that established the criteria by which conduct will be judged". •Seitel (1994), public relations people, in particular, must be ethical. they can't assume that ethic is strictly personal choices without relevance or related methodology for solving moral quandaries. •Ryan and Martinson (1983) said that the public relations practitioner helped by acting as the corporate conscience who consistently argued for actions and policies that are responsive to societal needs.
The Role Of Professional Organizations
The 6 Core Value : 1)ADVOCACY Serving the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for clients or employers. 2)HONESTY Adhering to the highest standard of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of clients and employers. 3)EXPERTISE Advancing the professional through continued professional development , research and education. 4)LOYALTY Being faithful to clients and employers, but also honoring an oblige to serve the public interest. 5)INDEPENDENCE Providing objective counsel and being accountable for individual actions. 6)FAIRNESS Respecting all opinions and supporting the right of free expression.
6 Major Provisions
1)FREE FLOW OF INFORMATION •The free flow of accurate and truthful information is essential to serving the public interest in a democratic society. 2)COMPETITION •Health and competition among professionals should take place within an ethical framework . •Employee should not share information with PR firm that are in competition with other firms for the organization business . 3)DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION •Intentionally leaving out essential information or giving a false impression of a company's financial performance is considered "lying by omission". •If you discover inaccurate infomation, you need to correct it immediately. 4)SAFEGUARDING CONFIDENCES •Client trust requires appropriate protection of confidential and private information. •We should not leak information that could affect other party . 5)CONFLICT OF INTEREST •A public relations firm should inform a prospective client that it already represents a competitor or has a conflicting interest . 6)ENHANCING THE PROFESSION •PR professionals should work constantly to strengthen the public's trust in the profession .
The Common Code Of Professional Conduct
•Conduct his activities for public interest. •Fair and honestly. •Safeguard the confidence. •Not represent conflicting or competing interest. •Performing services. •Prospective client.
The Malaysian PR Code of Profession Conduct
•Conduct his professional activities with respect of the public interest . •Deal fairly and honestly with his clients . •Disseminate falls or misleading information . •Tend to corrupt the integrity . •Promoting a special or private interest . •Safeguard the confident or both present and former clients and employees . •Not represent conflicting or competing interests . •Not cause or allow to be done anything .
Law Governing Public Relations
The Law Governing
1)PRINTING PRESSES AND PUBLICATION 1984 •Under this act, no person is allowing to keep or to use a printing press unless he has been granted license by the Minister Of Human Affair. 2)SEDITION ACT 1948 •Any act, speech, words or publication are seditious if they have 'seditious tendency'. •To excite subjects to seek alteration other than by lawful means. •To bring into hatred or contempt the administration of justice in the country. •To raise discontent or disaffection among the subjects. •To promote ill-will and hostility between races or classes. 3)DEFAMATION ACT 1957 Defamation statement is a statement which disparages a person in his office , profession , calling , trade or business . Occur in two form : •Libel - Published or written statement. •Slender - Spoken statement.
4)COPYRIGHT ACT 1987 According to Cutlip and Center (1994) , Copyright Act provides the copyright owner the "exclusive right" to reproduce , distribute , and use original works of expression fixed in a tangible medium . •Cover written. •Musical. •Dramatic. •Pictorial. 5)INTERNAL SECURITY ACT 1960 (revised in 1972) •This Act gives the Minister of Internal Affairs the power to detain any person with the view to prevent his from acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of Malaysia or any part there of or to the maintainance of essential service to the economic life. 6)OFFICIAL SECRET ACT 1972 The Official Secret Act seek prevent any 'official' government information from being received or released for prior authorization . •Any public service mentioned in article 132 of the Federal Constitution. •Any local authority. •Any statutory. •In time of war , any government department of an ally.
CHAPTER 10 : Public Relations and Future Challenges
The Impact of New Communication technologies
New Communication Technologies
1)Convergence of technologies •That are themselves improving in performance almost month-by-month. •Example : the desktop performance computer linked by modem to the internet. 2)Development in tecnology •Exploited more quickly how than in the past and as new technologies have become available,the time for them to be adopted & widely adopted has be shortened. •Example : usage of CD-ROM & the speed of the drives has been increase.
Application of New Communication Technologies
1)Digital Transmission •Digitilization will vastly improve TV picture quality,is demonstrated by high definition television (HDTV),which is now increasingly common. 2)Fiber Optic Cable •Cable that composed of strands of glass which increase transmission volume and speed.Being used in place of traditional copper cables.Able to transmit a 500 page novel in 2 sec. 3)Wireless Transmission •Connect as short range,high speed data connections.Typically operate in range of 300 feet.Wireless transmission,video conferences,television programming now are delivering internet at the same connection speed such as cable,DSL, and institutional networks.
1)The Internet & Public Relation Primary function of internet to public relation : •e-mail distrbution •world wide web site •brochure ware •usenet discussion group •listservs 2)The Internet •was created late 1960's by researches that were searching for a style or method to merge computers in separate cities.Was initially an academic government tool,sooner been introduce to the public.
•Controversial security problem and legal question of copyright infringement,libel,invasion of privacy and pornography remain unsolved. •Time consuming procedures for online transcation or product registration can be terminated by an error message. •Difficulty in finding desired information frustrated some users where search engine are prioritizing search result on fee payment from companies that will lead to biasing search result.
Other Communication Technologies Tools
•Cellular phones •Personal digital assistants •Electronic blackboards •Blogs and moblogsthis •Memory : The CD-R/RW,DVD-R/RW & Flash Memory
•Wireless broadband •Think digital,but not necessarily online •No more paper use
Public Relation Education
According to Edward L.Bernays
•PR must become a genuine profession.A profession that is clear in terms of roles and responsibility. •PR profession must be clearly defined in terms what one does and how one does it. •There should be control over entry and exit into it.
Public Relation Education In Malaysia
•In Malaysia PR is taught in some universities or college as part of their curriculum for business students. •Some of the institude of higher learning and private institution that offer courses in PR includes USM,UITM,UM,IPTAR,UKM and IPRM.
According to Newsom,Turk (1996),future education of PR has be considered in two levels
•For full or part time college/university students. •For continuing education.
Criteria to be focused in the future
Three Aspect To Focus In The Future
1)Credibility •To gain respect,confidence and trust. •Credibility is difficult to win and easy to lose. •We live in a global village where crediblity is not just a domestic issue. 2)Accountability •Consist of providing substantive vrification for the contributions of public relations. •The future will belong to public relation people who can hold their own in doing research ,buying research and analyzing the resulting data. 3)Responsibilty •When public relation practitioners and management have to demonstrate real knowledge and mastery of the industry or field they represent.
Requirements of today public relations practitioners
•Professionalism •Generalized specialization •Guts •Ethics •Leadership
Introduction to Public Relations : CHAPTER 1
Public Relations professionals help a business or individual cultivate a positive reputation with the public through various unpaid or earned communications, including traditional media, social media, and in-person engagements. They also help clients defend their reputation during a crisis that threatens their credibility.
Keyword/ Summary of Definitions
*Practicing two way communication.*Creating mutual understanding and positive relationships with important publics.*Researching the needs of the publics.*Reputation management of the organization.*Counseling the organization’s management.
Areas/ Umbrella of Public Relations
*Media Relations*Customer relations*Community relations*Employee relations*Financial relations*Governmental relations*Image-building*Issues management*Crisis management
Skill of Public Relations Practitioners
1.Able to identify important publics of the organizations.2.Able to identify the need of these public can do fulfill they need.3.Capable to gather facts about potential problems and emerging issue.4.Skill to conduct personal interview, review library materials and do content analysis, do opinion research or hire research firm and know to evaluate research conducted.
Writing and Editing Skills
1.Able to write and edit press release, speeches, feature articles, product information, brochures etc.2.Can communicate in other languages.
1.Arranging speeches for the CEO.2.Face to face to groups or mass media.3.Coaching executives how to present their speeches.4.Able to present the speech themselves.
1.Know how to design and do layout copy.2.Choose appropriate typography, artwork and photographs for brochures.3.Design web pages.4.Have multimedia knowledge.
1.Skills and knowledge in organizing and managing events (news conferences, open houses, launching etc.)
Qualities of Public Relations Practitioners
*Character & integrity.*A sense of judgment and logic.*Ability to think creatively and imaginatively.*Truthfulness and discretion.*Objectivity.*Deep interest in solution problems.*Broad cultural background*Intellectual curiosity.*Effective powers of analysis and synthesis.*Intuition.*Training in social sciences and mechanics of public relations.
History and Development of Public Relations : CHAPTER 2
Evolution of Public Relations Internationally
PR in early years has referred to mostly as using persuasive speech to spread religions, such as Islam & Christianity. The Greeks & Romans used public speech to win support for their policies.
The beginning of American PR is often compared to using publicity & promotion, whether for commercial reasons, fund-raising, or building personalities. Defensive publicity was particularly important in the early twentieth century to counter muckraking journalism.
Increasing pressures on organizations, whether gov or corporate, by various publics including the better informed customer, employee & activist has encouraged PR practitioners to take more managerial approach in executing tasks. Practitioners are more concerned about conducting public opinion polls to identify the support they may have for their employer / client. Strategic planning & knowledge-based counselling of senior management is growing among practitioners.
Using information to create awareness & encourage support for & participation in campaigns become more popular during World War I & II. It was also important to gain independence from colonial masters in many parts of the world. Information was key to development & nation building efforts of newly independence government.
With the rapid growth in communication technologies, development of infrastructure & more consumer-oriented society, PR has become more involved in marketing efforts. There is greater emphasis on promotions & efforts to remain distinctive among competitors. Practitioners help to organize exhibitions & road shows & prepare materials like information pamphlets.
Development of Public Relations in Malaysia
PR Development Before Independence
1.Gaining independence.2.Formalizing national status.3.Promoting and maintaining unity among different ethnic groups.4.Promoting government development plans and encouraging participation among them.5.Most activities are conducted through public campaign.
PR Development After Independence
1.To run nation building campaign.2.To conduct press relations works to aid in government effort to build democratic nation.3.To disseminate information about gov policies.4.To promote acceptance of government policies.5.To monitor feedback from general public on government policies.
Between 1960 & the early 1980s, PR was characterized by gov run nation-building campaigns to aid in gov efforts to build a democratic nation. The main functions were press relations work & dissemination of information about gov policies and monitoring feedback from the general public on these policies. In 1970, the gov set up PR units in almost all of its various dept. & agencies, partly to explain & partly to promote acceptance of gov policies. However, these positions are often not filled up by trained PR personnel, thus, PR in the gov sector is still relatively undeveloped.
Private Sector PR
PR in the private sector grew in 1960 with the growth of multi-national organization as well as the formation of PR agencies. The first known PR agency, Eric White Associated started operations in 1965. As Malaysia's economy prospered & with increased economic liberalism, it attracted more multinational companies & with them came the international PR consultancies. Burson-Marsteller and Eric White Associated were among two pioneering consultancies. Soon after, local consultancies also sprung up to serve local businesses that could not afford the bigger international consultancies. A majority of these smaller agencies specialized in graphic design, brochures, or video production, although they billed themselves as PR firms (Van Leuven, 1996, p.12). Several agencies also performed other limited tasks like media relations, event promotions and product launches.
Corporate PR Departments
Multinational companies, especially oil companies like Esso (Exxon) & Shell, were among the earliest corporations to set up in-house PR dept. Their PR activities focused more on gaining acceptance of their organization in the community in which they operated, & in assisting in increasing employee productivity. Those multinationals supported various gov nation-building efforts by underwriting sports, arts & educational programs (Van Leuven 1996, p.212). Even today community relations programs are important in large Malaysian organizations like Petronas, Malaysia Airlines and Shell. They sponsor scholarship, donate to welfare project for examples to Old Folks Homes and victims of fire and floods.
Models of Public Relations
Press Agentry Model
The first model, reflects PR programs designed for the sole purpose of getting favourable publicity for an organization in the mass media. Often the organization does not reveal complete information in the attempt to control or dominate the environment. It is a common model publicists use to promote celebrities, products, sports or organization leaders.
Two-way Asymmetrical Model
The second model, was described as one that uses research & theories of persuasion to develop messages that are likely to persuade strategic publics to behave as the organization wants them to. The two-way asymmetrical model achieves its objectives more than the press agentry or public information models since it researches the publics' attitudes.
Public Information Model
The third model, describes PR as a function to disseminate information, normally from the organization's perspectives, through controlled organization media & mass media. In this model, PR practitioners were "journalist-in-residence" disseminating relatively truthful information but only that information the organization chooses to release instead of the whole truth.
The fourth model, J. Grunig (1997) suggested this model is the most ethical & effective model, which describes PR programs based on research & which uses two-way communication to manage conflict & improve understanding with strategic publics. It negotiates rather than forces a position between the organization & the concerned public. According to him, this model represents an alternative to the predominant worldview that PR is a way of manipulating publics for the benefit of the organization.
Mixed Motive Model
Also known as Additional Models. This model proposed a middle ground between the two-way asymmetrical & symmetrical models, which represents two ends on a continuum. The model implies both organization & publics seek to negotiate outcomes that are most advantageous to both parties in the long term. J. Grunig (1997) said that excellent PR dept. balance attempts to "persuade publics with the asymmetrical model and negotiate with the symmetrical model" (p.265).
Personal Influence Model
This model suggests that practitioners use interpersonal communication to build personal and long term relationship with key individuals of the organization's strategic publics, like the media, gov, political body or among activist groups. For example, Sriramesh (1992) said that practitioners in India "used various techniques like hospitality, giving gifts and brokering of influence, to build lasting friendships" (p.246) His study suggested this model uses one-way communication & its purpose is predominantly "synchronic" or asymmetrical.
Type of Public Relations : CHAPTER 3
Corporate Public Relations