Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive SystemOvaryOvaries are a pair of almond shaped organs in the pelvic cavity.It is overed by a simple cuboidal epithelium which called the germinal epithelium.Tunica albuginea is a dense connective tissue capsule located between the germinal epithelium and the underlying cortex.The peripheral portion of the ovary containing ovarian follicles embedded in a highly cellular connective tissue stroma is called the cortex.Vagina- Vagina is a muscular tubelike organ. - Which extends from the cervix to the external genitalia.Lined by a stratified squamous (incompletely keratinized) epithelium, and does not have glands.Epithelial cells accumulate large amounts of glycogen during the follicular phase- The muscularis of the vagina is composed mainly of longitudinal smooth muscle, with some circular fibers near the mucosa.- The adventitia is a dense connective tissue, rich in elastic fibers. In this region is also found extensive venous plexus, bundles of nerve fibers, and clusters of neurons.Female external reproductive organsOviductAlso known Fallopian tubesIt carries the ova from the surface of the ovaries to the uterine cavity.Site of fertilization by spermatozoa.Divided into 4 partsMammary GlandSpecialized accessory glands, consisting of 15-25 lobes of compound tubuloalveolar glands.- Secrete milk to nourish young. -The secretory units and duct system are composed of a simple cuboidal or simple columnar epithelium.IsthmusNarrow segment of the oviduct adjacent to the uterine wall and has few mucosal folds.The interstitialis is the intrauterine segment of the oviduct embedded in the uterine wall.This region has the fewest mucosal folds and the myometrium of the uterus contributes to its muscularis.The medulla contains loose connective tissue, large blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves which located at the central portion of the ovary.The structures containing a developing oocyte (egg) and a surrounding layer or layers of follicular (granulosa) cells (which produce hormones such as estrogen).Size and appearance of the follicle is according to the developmental state of the oocyte. (primordial, primary, secondary/antral, mature and Graafian follicle)After ovulation, the mature cells is ruptured and theca interna will be left in the ovary which developed as the lutein cells to produce hormones.InfundibulumAmpulaIsthmusInterstitialIt is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells with two major cell types.Non-ciliated secretory cells (called Peg cell) provide nutritive material for the ova and sperm (glucose, bicarbonate, metabolites, and alpha-amylase).Ciliated cells represent up to 70% of the cells of the infundibulum and ampulla. It beat rhythmically to propel the ova toward the uterus and its beating speed depends upon progesterone, but must be estrogen primed first.Site of fertilization and represents 2/3 of the length of the oviduct.UterusUterus is a hollow, pearshaped tube with a lumen continuous with oviduct and the vagina.The wall is composed of 3 distinct layersEndometriumMyometriumPerimetrium- Is a mucosa which provides the environment for fetal development. - Vary in thickness during the phases of the menstrual cycle.Composed of two distinct layersStratum functionale (also known as pars functionalis) is a temporary layer which thickens and shed in response to ovarian hormones.Stratum basale contains the basal portions of endometrial glands and is retained during menstruation.Smooth muscleConsists of a serosa of connective tissue that contained blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and sympathetic ganglia that is covered by the mesthelium of the peritoneal cavity.Cervix- An extension of the uterus into the vaginal canal. - Lined by a simple columnar epithelium. - 95% of the cells are mucous secreting cells and 5% are ciliatedEpithelium of the cervix has branched tubular glands and is not shed during menstruation.During ovulation, secretion thin watery mucus permits passage of spermatozoa.- After ovulation, the cervical mucus becomes viscous to form a plug. - At the junction of the endocervical canal and the uterine cavity, the epithelium changes from a simple columnar epithelium (cervix) to a stratified squamous epithelium (vagina).Labia Majora:It encloses and protects the other external reproductive organs.Labia Minora:They are flattened longitudinal folds located within the cleft between the labia majora.Clitoris:It is a small projection at the anterior end of the vulva between the labia minora.Vestibule:- The vestibule of the vulva is the space enclosed by the labia minora.- Greater vestibular glands- secrete mucus for lubrication