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Female Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Ovaries are a pair of almond shaped organs in the pelvic cavity.
It is overed by a
simple cuboidal epithelium
which called the germinal
is a dense connective tissue capsule located between
the germinal epithelium and the underlying cortex.
The peripheral portion of the ovary containing
embedded in a
highly cellular connective tissue
stroma is called the
- Vagina is a muscular tubelike organ.
- Which extends from the cervix to the
Lined by a
stratified squamous (incompletely keratinized)
, and does not have glands.
Epithelial cells accumulate large amounts of glycogen during
the follicular phase
of the vagina is composed mainly of longitudinal
smooth muscle, with some circular fibers near the mucosa.
is a dense connective tissue, rich in elastic fibers.
In this region is also found extensive venous plexus, bundles of nerve
fibers, and clusters of neurons.
Female external reproductive organs
It carries the ova from the surface of the ovaries to the uterine cavity.
Site of fertilization
Divided into 4 parts
Specialized accessory glands, consisting of 15-25 lobes of compound
- Secrete milk to nourish young.
-The secretory units and duct system are composed of a
cuboidal or simple columnar epithelium
Narrow segment of the oviduct adjacent to the uterine wall and has few
The interstitialis is the intrauterine segment of the oviduct embedded in
the uterine wall.
This region has the fewest mucosal folds and the myometrium of the
uterus contributes to its muscularis.
contains loose connective tissue, large blood vessels,
lymphatic vessels and nerves which located at the central portion of the
The structures containing a
developing oocyte (egg)
and a surrounding
layers of follicular
(granulosa) cells (which produce hormones
such as estrogen).
Size and appearance of the follicle is according to the developmental
state of the oocyte. (primordial, primary, secondary/antral, mature and
After ovulation, the mature
cells is ruptured
and theca interna will be left
in the ovary which
developed as the lutein cells
to produce hormones.
It is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells with two major cell
Non-ciliated secretory cells
(called Peg cell) provide nutritive material for
the ova and sperm (glucose, bicarbonate, metabolites, and alpha-
represent up to 70% of the cells of the infundibulum
and ampulla. It
to propel the ova toward the
uterus and its beating speed
depends upon progesterone
must be estrogen primed first.
Site of fertilization and represents 2/3 of the length of the oviduct.
Uterus is a hollow, pearshaped tube with a lumen continuous with
oviduct and the vagina.
The wall is composed of 3 distinct layers
- Is a mucosa which
provides the environment for fetal
Vary in thickness
during the phases of
the menstrual cycle.
Composed of two distinct layers
(also known as pars functionalis) is a temporary
layer which thickens and shed in response to ovarian hormones.
contains the basal portions of endometrial glands and is
retained during menstruation.
Consists of a
serosa of connective tissue
that contained blood and
lymph vessels, nerves, and sympathetic ganglia that is covered by the
mesthelium of the peritoneal cavity.
- An extension of the uterus into the
vaginal canal. - Lined by a simple
columnar epithelium. -
the cells are mucous secreting cells
5% are ciliated
Epithelium of the cervix has branched tubular glands and is not
shed during menstruation.
secretion thin watery mucus
passage of spermatozoa.
- After ovulation, the cervical mucus becomes viscous to form a plug.
- At the junction of the endocervical canal and the uterine cavity, the
changes from a simple columnar epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
It encloses and protects the other external reproductive organs.
They are flattened longitudinal folds located within the cleft
between the labia majora.
It is a small projection at the anterior end of the vulva
between the labia minora.
- The vestibule of the vulva is the space enclosed by the labia minora.
- Greater vestibular glands- secrete mucus for lubrication