Hypersensitivity Concept map

leading toExEx.Ex.Immune Response may be specific for antigens from different sources.Immediate (Type I) HypersensitivityIgE is formed as a result of prior sensitization and coats mast cells and basophils.Subsequent encounter with antigen results in an IgE-mediated reaction by preformed IgE antibodies (crosslinking)Release of histamine and other mediatorsMast cell secretion of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators Cytotoxic (Type II) HypersensitivityIgM and IgG mistakenly bind to surface antigens of the cells in the bodyImmune Complex-Mediated (Type III) HypersensitivityCell-mediated (Type IV) HypersensitivityPresensitized T cell response (after repeated contact with the antigen)-Airborne Allergens (pollens, dust, etc)-Foods (peanuts, wheat, shelffish, etc.)-Insect stings (bee or wasp)-Gender (Female)-Concomitant Infections (HIV, Herpes)-Concurrent Illnesses (Systemic lupus erythematosus)-Family History-Age-Asthma- Environmental factors (climate, air, pollution)EtiologyPredisposing FactorsPrecipitating FactorsSigns and SymptomsDisease ProcessMedicationNursing DiagnosisDiagnostic TestPrognosisDiseaseT cell sensitizationSkin pentration by the antigenUptake of the antigen by Langerhans CellMigrastion to lymph nodesfFrmation of sensitized T lymphocytesCD4+ T cells recognize antigens on antigen-presenting cellsRelease of inflammatory lymphokines cytokinesMacrophages activationPhagocytosis of target cellsCD8+ T cells recognize antigens on somatic cellscell-mediated cytotoxicitydirect cell destructionAllergic contact dermatitisImmune complexes are deposited in tissue, especially blood vesselsAntigen binds to IgG to form an immune complex (antigen-antibody complex)Initiation of complement cascadeRelease of lysosomal enzymes from neutrophilsCell deathInflammationVasculitisImpaired cellular functionInflammationCellular DestructionAntibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicityTarget cell opsonizationPhagocytosis/Complement activationFc-receptor mediated immune cell activationAntibodies bind to cellular surfacesSubtoactivation of the complement systempicAntibodies bind to cell surface receptorsInhibition or activation of downstream signaling pathwaysimpaired cellular functionGoodpasture syndromeNausea and VomitingFatigueWeaknessCyclophosphamide- urinalysis- blood test- chest x ray- kidney biopsyIf not treated:It prrovides the perfect place for bacteria to accumulate, grow, and cause infection. Untreated allergies may also worsen other chronic problems such as asthma, and skin disorders like eczema and hives.Hypersensitivity l-lvDegranulation of cells↑ Smooth muscle contractionbronchospasm, abdominal crampingeosinophil and neutrophil chemotaxislate-phase reactioninflammation and tissue damageErythemaRhinorrheaSneezingWheezingCoughing
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