English Sentence Structure

Grammar C1 - Chapter 1 : Sentences1. What I learned Sentence definition and constituentsTypes of sentencesDefinition of key terms Definition of sentencesCompound sentence: 2 or more than 2 inde. clauses joined by:Simple sentence: only one clause/predicateEx : I like tea. TypesParts of sentence CLAUSE: A group of words contains a subject and a finite verbEx 1: Because I was late,/ they went without me.(Independent) (dependent clauses)Ex 2: I was late or because I was late Dependent = subordinator + inde. clausePHRASE: A group of words does not contain a subject and a finite verbEx 1: I like her expensive new car.(N-phrase)Ex 2: George hates working in the garden.(V-ing)_a grammatically complete unit stands independently _contains an inde. clause with a finite verbSubording conjunction -> its inde.clausesEx: When it rained, we went inside Complex sentence: 1 or more de.clausesA semi-colonA colonA coordinating conjunctionConnecting adverbCorrelative ConjunctionEx: My dad is a vet ; my mom is a chef Ex: I don't want to leave : it's snowing outside[FANBOYS (for,and,nor,but,or,yet,so)]I am young;however,I'm tiredNominal clausesAdjectival clausesAdverbial clausesSentence definition and constituentsSentence patternsSentence structuresSentence typesSubject : noun, pronoun or noun phrasePredicate: part of the sentence Precedes the main verb Determines concord (agreement)Ex: My mother is beautiful. (noun) Verb: (action verbs and state verbs)Object: goes after (transitive) verb, affected by the action of the verb states/asserts something about the subject usually consists ofComplement: part of the sentence; completes the sentence Adverbial: functions like an adverb (a single-word adverbial)Sentence patternsNon-finite verb: not related to the subjectTransitive verbs: He kicked a small stoneIntransitive verbs: I can’t sleep.Transitive and intransitive: Miss Reynolds smiled and left the room.Finite verb: related to the subject in PERSON/NUMBER/TENSESInfinitive: She helps me clean my house V-ing: We are studying grammarPast participle: I had all my money stolen.Ex: We want She wants to leave. I wanted finite verb forms Non-finite verb formsDirect Object (DO)Indirect Object (IO)Linking verb: Anna became my best friend Subject complement: linked to a subject by be or a linking verb Object complement: linked to an object Adjuncts: part of the basic structure; modifying the verb/ time/place... Conjuncts: not part of the basic structure; connecting ideas Disjuncts: (sentential adverbs) showing attitude, evaluating Pattern 2Pattern 5Pattern 4Pattern 3Pattern 1*Note : if we want to check sentence pattern => we can change its position_ Have meaning : Pattern 4 _ Not have meaning : Other patterns She is studying advanced grammar well. S Vt Di. Object AdvThe goal is studying advanced grammar well. S state verb Sub. ComplementSentence Structure Statements (Declarative Sentences) Questions (Interrogative Sentences) Commands (Imperative Sentences) Exclamations (Exclamatory Sentences)describes a state of affairs, action, feeling or belief, etc. Ex: It’s very cold here in winter.An utterance which asks for an expression of fact, opinion, belief, etc.Ex: Can she come?tells other people what to doEx: Be seated, please.may not have the structure of a full sentence and shows strong emotionsEx : How clever she is!2.NOTE*one of the main parts of a sentence*expresses an action/occurrence/state of beingde. clauses combines with inde. clausesn; prep; v; adj; adv phrasesShe is a doctorWe made her the chairperson.We went to the concert yesterday evening.Altogether, it was a happy week.Naturally, I paid for my own meal.S + Vi Ex 1: The phone rang. S + Vi + particle (A) Ex 2: He came in. .S + Vi+ adverbial phrase (A) Ex 3: The phone rang loudly.S + Vl + SC SC can be: adj; noun; adj + noun ....S + Vt + DOS + Vt + DO + to/for + IO (can't change DO and IO position)[DO can be: noun/ pronoun/ reflexive pronoun..]Ex 1: My sister answered the phone.Ex 2: They introduced me to the professor.S + Vt + IO+ DOS + Vt + DO+ to/for + IO S + Vt + IO(can change DO and IO position)S + Vt + DO + OCThey gave him a watch.They gave a watch to him.They appointed him chairman.He drove me crazy.
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