English Sentence Structure
A mind map about the grammar of sentences in english language. This mind map introduced sentence definition and constituents, different types of sentences, parts of sentence, sentence patterns, and sentence structure, etc. Use EdrawMind to easily create your own diagram!
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Grammar C1 - Chapter 1 : Sentences
1. What I learned
Sentence definition and constituents
Definition of key terms
CLAUSE: A group of words contains a subject and a finite verb Ex 1: Because I was late,/ they went without me. ➔ (Independent) (dependent clauses) Ex 2: I was late or because I was late Dependent = subordinator + inde. clause
de. clauses combines with inde. clauses
PHRASE: A group of words does not contain a subject and a finite verb Ex 1: I like her expensive new car.(N-phrase) Ex 2: George hates working in the garden.(V-ing)
n; prep; v; adj; adv phrases
Definition of sentences
_a grammatically complete unit stands independently _contains an inde. clause with a finite verb
Types of sentences
Simple sentence: only one clause/predicate Ex : I like tea.
Compound sentence: 2 or more than 2 inde. clauses joined by:
Ex: My dad is a vet ; my mom is a chef
Ex: I don't want to leave : it's snowing outside
A coordinating conjunction
I am young;however,I'm tired
Complex sentence: 1 or more de.clauses
Subording conjunction -> its inde.clauses Ex: When it rained, we went inside
Parts of sentence
Subject : noun, pronoun or noun phrase
Precedes the main verb
Determines concord (agreement)
Ex: My mother is beautiful. (noun)
Predicate: part of the sentence
states/asserts something about the subject
usually consists of
Verb: (action verbs and state verbs)
*one of the main parts of a sentence *expresses an action/occurrence/state of being
Finite verb: related to the subject in PERSON/NUMBER/TENSES
Non-finite verb: not related to the subject
Infinitive: She helps me clean my house
V-ing: We are studying grammar
Past participle: I had all my money stolen.
Ex: We want She wants to leave. I wanted ⬇ ⬇ finite verb forms Non-finite verb forms
Transitive verbs: He kicked a small stone
Intransitive verbs: I can’t sleep.
Transitive and intransitive: Miss Reynolds smiled and left the room.
Linking verb: Anna became my best friend
Object: goes after (transitive) verb, affected by the action of the verb
Direct Object (DO)
Indirect Object (IO)
Complement: part of the sentence; completes the sentence
Subject complement: linked to a subject by be or a linking verb
She is a doctor
Object complement: linked to an object
We made her the chairperson.
Adverbial: functions like an adverb (a single-word adverbial)
Adjuncts: part of the basic structure; modifying the verb/ time/place...
We went to the concert yesterday evening.
Conjuncts: not part of the basic structure; connecting ideas
Altogether, it was a happy week.
Disjuncts: (sentential adverbs) showing attitude, evaluating
Naturally, I paid for my own meal.
S + Vi Ex 1: The phone rang. S + Vi + particle (A) Ex 2: He came in. . S + Vi+ adverbial phrase (A) Ex 3: The phone rang loudly.
S + Vl + SC SC can be: adj; noun; adj + noun ....
S + Vt + DO S + Vt + DO + to/for + IO (can't change DO and IO position) [DO can be: noun/ pronoun/ reflexive pronoun..] Ex 1: My sister answered the phone. Ex 2: They introduced me to the professor.
S + Vt + IO+ DO S + Vt + DO+ to/for + IO S + Vt + IO (can change DO and IO position)
They gave him a watch. They gave a watch to him.
S + Vt + DO + OC
They appointed him chairman. He drove me crazy.
Statements (Declarative Sentences)
describes a state of affairs, action, feeling or belief, etc.
Ex: It’s very cold here in winter.
Questions (Interrogative Sentences)
An utterance which asks for an expression of fact, opinion, belief, etc.
Ex: Can she come?
Commands (Imperative Sentences)
tells other people what to do
Ex: Be seated, please.
Exclamations (Exclamatory Sentences)
may not have the structure of a full sentence and shows strong emotions
Ex : How clever she is!
The goal is studying advanced grammar well. S state verb Sub. Complement
She is studying advanced grammar well. S Vt Di. Object Adv
*Note : if we want to check sentence pattern => we can change its position _ Have meaning : Pattern 4 _ Not have meaning : Other patterns
Sentence definition and constituents Sentence patterns Sentence structures Sentence types