Psychophysiology of Memory

lPsychophysiology of memoryDevelopment of MemoryThese days, it is assumed that the Papez circuit serves the storage of memories by transferring information from the primary memory (short-term memory) to the secondary memory (long-term memory) or the tertiary memory (an independent part of the long-term memory).The Papez circuit proceeds as follows: hippocampus → fornix → mammillary body inside the hypothalamus (corpora mammillaria) → cingulate cortex → hippocampusSensory memory(ultra-short-term memory)The ultra-short-term memory receives stimuli from sensory organs in the form of neuronal excitation. This process has a duration of less than 1 second, and the perception can take place via the eyes or ears. The ultra-short-term memory via the eye is also referred to as iconic memory, and via the ears, echoic memory (and it perishes just as fast). Only stimuli that reach the short-term memory remain because the ultra-short-term memory has no storage capabilities.Short-term memory (primary memory)Memories in the primary memory (short-term memory) are available as long as we occupy ourselves with them. If that process is interrupted, the memory is lost too. Memories that begin in the primary memory can be available permanently, but only if they are transferred to long-term memory. It is assumed that short-term memory is a transit for experiences into long-term memory. hippocampus, located in the cerebral cortex, is involved in the process of transmitting information from the primary memory to the long-term memory. The hippocampus is thought to be involved in this process because when lesions appear in the hippocampus, only the short-term memory remains intact. Another term for primary memory is ‘labile memory’ since it is very unstable. One distraction is enough to forget the perceived or heard information. Calcium has a major role in these processes.Long-term memoryFor storing memories in long-term memory, repetition is particularly important. This concept is easily understandable when one considers the high amount of repetition required to learn new movement patterns, e.g., when learning a new sport.Process that aid in encoding memoriesMnemonic - is any technique for improving retention and retrieval from memory.Rehearsal: use of the phonological loopThe method of lociinvolves imagining moving through a familiar place and having stops or loci.Floating TopicFloating TopicItems to be recalled are mentally associated with these physical locations or lociProvides a deeper representationAlso known as the ‘Journey method’Pathology of Memory PerformanceAmnesiaIn the case of amnesia, patients cannot store experiences or learned knowledge, and this can affect all types of information or only certain parts. For example, patients can lose access to memories from certain stages of their lives. In most cases, the patient can remember events that happened long ago rather than events that occurred just latelyAlzheimer’s DiseaseAlzheimer‘s disease is characterized by a regression of nerve cells, which can result in the brain shrinking up to 20%. The consequence is an impaired relay of information. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s may make processing information nearly impossible. At the same time, plaques of protein fragments form. Brain regions responsible for processing information and memory performance are particularly affected by Alzheimer’s disease.Floating TopicFloating TopicFloating Topic
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