Rabies in the Philippine Setting Mindmap

Rabies (Hydrophobia, Lyssa)Period of CommunicabilityIncubation PeriodCause3-10 days (rarely over 3 days) before onset of clinical signs (in dogs and cats)throughout duration of disease2-8 weeksMay be as long as a year or several years depending on: 1. Protection provided and clothing2. Amount of virus introduced3. Severity of the wounds4. Site of the woundDistance of the wound to the brain1. Acute viral encephalomyelitis2. Rabies virus (rhabdovirus) genus lyssavirusMode of TransmissionSigns and SymptomsSusceptibility and ResistanceAll warm-blooded animals susceptibleNatural immunity in man is unknown1. Sense of apprehension2. Headache3. Fever4. Sensory change near site of animal bite5. Spasms of muscles or deglutition on attempts to swallow (fear of water/hydrophobia)6. Paralysis7. Delirium and Convulsions1. Organ transplant (corneal) from dying infected person (rare)2. Bites of a rabid animal whose saliva has the virus3. Scratch or fresh breaks in the skin (very rare)4. Man-to-man5. Airborn spread in a cove with millions of bats (Rare)NoteKindsGoalTreatment/Management/PreventionStrategies1. Manpower Development2. Social Mobilization3. Local Program Implementation4. Dog ImmunizationHuman rabies is eliminated in the Philippines and the country is declared rabies-freeBe a responsible pet owner:a. Have pet immunized at 3 months of age and every year thereafterb. Never allow pets to roam the streetsc. Take care of your pet, bathe and feed them regularly with adequate food, provide them with clean sleeping quartersd. Your pet's action is your responsibilityConsult for rabies diagnosis and surveillance of the areaMobilize for Community ParticipationThe wound must be immediately and throughly washed with soap and water (antiseptics like povidone iodine or alcohol may also be applied)Patients might be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunizationPost-exposure treatment (local wound treatment, active immunization via vaccination and passive immunization via administration of rabies immunoglobulinActive immunization/Vaccination (induces the body to develop antibodies to fight rabies for up to 3 years)Passive immunization (Giving an antibody to an infected person to provide immediate protection against rabies (to be administered in the 1st 7 days of active immunization) (effects, however, are short-termRabies immunization is free for all!Rabies remains a problem in the PhilippinesWithout medical intervention, the victim would usually last for only 2-8 days. Death is often due to respiratory paralysisComplication leading to DeathRespiratory ParalysisAirborne or Canine RabiesSylvatic RabiesTransmitted by dogsDisease of wild animals and bats which sometimes spread to dogs, cats and livestock