Sociology course summary

SociologyAlexis de TocquevilleMax WeberKarl MarxSocial constructionSocial OrderAugust ComteGladwellÉmile DurkheimMills"Democracy in America", the US as a nation of joinerscapitalism"Division of Labor in Society"the individual does matter"sociology" (social physics)Socializationsociological imagination (1959)social structureHerbert Spencer“survival ofthe fittest” . The best persons succeed, and the rest fall behind due to their own lack of effort orability.the states interference with the natural order by improving the life chances of individualssocial factslikened society to a biological organismorganic solidaritysocial constraintanomiethe importance of religion in maintaining moral order in societymaterialist conception of historybureaucracyHARRIET MARTINEAUfocusing on all aspects of society while studyingpreviously ignored issuesmore than observe, but benefit tooW. E. B. DU BOIS“double consciousness”“thecontact of diverse races of men”Encyclopedia AfricanarationalizationGeorge Herbert Meadsymbolic interactionismFunctionalismRobertK. Mertonfunctions and disfunctionsConflict TheoryMarxismpower and ideologiesFeminismRational choice theoryPostmodern theoryJean Baudrillard, electronic media influenceMicrosociologyThe study of human behavior inthe context of face-to-face interaction.MacrosociologyThe study of large-scale groups,organizations, or social systems.ideas and valuesRobert Parkpersonal, emotional, and scientific side of sociologySociological approachWilliam Ogburnstatistics and scientific methodologiesResearch methodsethnographysurveysexperimentsrich and broader understanding, but small groupsprecise and efficient data on a large group, but may be superficialeasier to control and repeat, but can be affected by various situations and no access to lab smtmparticipant observationpopulationpilot studysamplesamplingrepresentative samplerandom samplingcomparative historical researchempirical investigationAn idea or practice that a group of people agree exists. It is maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted.A theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform—that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a societyA concept used by Weber to refer to the process by which modes of precise calculation and organization, involving abstract rules and procedures, increasingly come to dominate the social worldA sociological perspective that emphasizes the role of political and economic power and oppression as contributing to the existing social orderMore broadly, the theory that an individual’s behavior is purposiveThe conditioning influence on our behavior of the groups and societies of which we are membersAn economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.The view developed by Marx according to which material, or economic, factors have a prime role in determining historical changemanifest functionThe functions of a type of social activity that are known to and intended by the individuals involved in the activitylatent functionFunctional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur
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