COPD Concept Map

COPD
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Treatment
Diagnosis
Clinical Presentation
Consider both bronchitis and emphsema together under the rubric of COPD. Third leading cause of death in the United States, over 15 million persons with COPD. Cigratte smoking remains the principle cause Chronic dust and chemical perfume exposure are also contributing risk factors increased age, men, whites, and persons of lower socioeconomic status are more at risk
Inspired irritants result in airway inflammation with infiltration of neutrophilis, macrophages, and lymphocytes into bronchial chest wall. Continual bronchial inflammation causes bronchial edema, an increase in size and number of mucous glands and goblet cells in the airway epithelium, smooth muscle hypertrophy with fibrosis, and narrowing of the airway.
Bronchodilators
Mucolytics
Antioxidants
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Chest Physical Therapy
Oxygen
Based on hisotry of symptoms, physical
examination, chest imaging, pulmonary function tests, and
blood gas analysis
Cough with sputum production
Wheezing
Coarse Crackles
Tachycardia
Breath Sounds Decreased in Intensity
SOB with exertion
Clubbed Fingers
Barrel Chest
Cyanosis
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