Hypertension Concept Map Nursing

HYPERTESNSION
Medical
Interventions
Medical Interventions include
medication & surgical methods as
a way to control or
Any examination,
treatment, or other act having
Preventive, diagnostic therapeutic or
rehabilitative aims and which
is carried out.
Signs & Symptoms
Fatigue
Nose Bleeds
Renin Inhibitors
Direct renin inhibitors black the enzyme renin from
triggering a process that helps regulate blood pressure.
As a result, blood vessels relax and widen, making
it easier for blood to flow through the vessesls, which lowers blood pressure.
Example: Aliskiren
Calcium CHannel Antagonist
Reduce peripheral vascular resistance; No adverse CNS or
metabolic effects An option for second-line therapy,
generally with a thiazide-type diuretic use at low doses
(pharmacokinetics change with advancing age) do not use short-
acting CCAs to treat HTN
ACE Inhibitors
Can be used as initial monotherapy for simple HTN in older patients,
especially men Generally well tolerated (except for cough)
No adverse CNS or metabolic effects
Well suited to patients with diabetes and those with LV
systolic dysfunction
Thiazide Diuretics
The thiazides are the most commonly used oral diurtics and are widely
Used in the therapy of hypertension and congestive heart failure,
as well as the treatment of edema due to local, renal and hepatic cuses.
Examples: Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ), Acetazolamide, Methazolamide
Beta Blockers
reat several different types of conditions, including
hypertension (high blood pressure), angina, some abnormal heart
rhythms, heart attack (myocardial infarction), anxiety, migraine,
glaucoma, and overactive thyroid symptoms.
Examples: Metoprolol, Atenolol, Carvedilol, Labetalol
Amgiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Examples: Lodartan, Valsarfan, Olmesartan & Irbesartan
Flushed, pale or
Red Skin
Feeling Confused
(off and on)
Dizzy
Headache
Syncope
Irregular hearbeat
Visual Disturbances
Nausea & Vomitting
Ringing in ears
Syncope
Shortness of breath
High Blood Pressure
Normal Values:
Systolic = <120 mmHg
Dystolic = <80 mmHg
Medical
Interventions
PATHOPHY SIOLOGY
Hypertension is
the elevation of the
Systolic or Dystoll
Pressure Values.
Increased Risk
Factors
Family history and physiologic
co-morbidities. Affican Americans are at a
higher risk than Caucasians Obesity,
a sedentary lifestyle and Stress,
Smoking alcohol, high-fat & high-sodium diets,
individuals with elevated
lipid panels are at a higher level of risk
BP increases with age,
especially SBP and pulse
pressure (difference
between SBP and DBP)
Epidemiology
In Americans >65 yeard,
the prevalence of hypertension (HTN)
is : 50% to 70%
Highest among blacks
Higher in women than men.
Necessity of
k+Rich & Low Na+Diet
Discuss possible
medication side effects
Avoid sudden
position changes
Involve family and
friends for + reinforcement
Encourage patient
to keep log BP
Continous
Education
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