History of Netherlands

History of NetherlandsEconomic Growth in The Middle AgesThe Development of Territorial Principalities and The Rise of Towns The Demand for IndependenceThe Frankish Empire The Roman Period Iron Age Bronze Age World War IIThe Discoveries of EraNeolithic Era Mesolithic Era Palaeolithic Era The earliest signs of life during the Palaeolithic era are found on the border of Belgium and the Netherlands near Maastricht, where stone flints and hand axes were found and dated to 250,000 BP.During 80,000 BP and 35,000 BP, the Mousterian culture was present in northern caves in Belgium. Bone tools, flints, and the earliest pine canoe were found and dated back to the period of 8500 BP.It seems that during this era, the population of the Netherlands was divided by the main rivers.Two of the main culture groups of this era are the Maglemesian group and the Tardenoisian group.During 4100 BP, multiple material cultures began to come into the Netherlands through Belgium. These cultures were known for collective graves that spanned hundreds of feet and were characterized by a large rock or boulder at their head to signify a burial site. These were people who had developed land cultivation in its earliest stages. This led to the discovery of items such as the wheel, the plow, and the cart. All of which would transform agriculture forever. The Bronze age can be marked as the beginning of bronze imports coming into the agrarian culture from the isles of Britain and northern Europe.Archaeological findings dated back to 1500 BCE suggest that the agricultural system had begun advancing and showed signs of developing into mixed farming.During the Iron age, Celtic and German tribes were starting to come into the region.To the south, Celtic warrior tribes can be traced through their chieftain burial sites that contained chariots, weapons, wine, and tools made of bronze. by the mid-1st century BCE, the roman culture had started playing a role in the lives of the people living in the northern provinces of the empire.Famous road networks and garrisons were constructed in present-day Nijmegenby the 3rd century BCE, Roman power was beginning to steadily decline in the Low Countries. Eventually, the forts were abandoned due to invasions by Germanic tribes. With the retreat of the Roman empire, the Franks were now able to form an empire along important routes for trade.This allowed them to gain influence and power against the Romans and to eventually take the Netherlands in 768 BC under the rule of Charlemagne which was nearing the end of the Frankish empire.This was in turn accelerated by the Viking attacks that had been initiated following Charlemagne’s death in the year 814.After the fall of the Charlemagne Empire in 814, the Low Countries region has been distributed into further smaller states that were controlled by dukes and tallies.Along with agriculture, commerce, and crafts, important trading links and rich towns extending to as far as Asia and North Africa, changed the Netherlands into the territory where the feudal power has been restricted, economic activity and safety of movement established.During this time, multiple small areas of land were under the rule of certain ‘Feudal Lords’ who maintained the land and gave fealty to the kings of Germany, France, and the Church or Roman empire.By the 10th and 11th century, all these counties had chosen to expand their sphere of influence by banding together and eventually forming an administrative apparatus called the curia committees, which was based on centralized officials in charge of districts with their own military and administrative powers.By 1100, territories such as Hainaut and Hamburg seized the chance during the weakening of the German crown to expand and form principalities. Meanwhile, the French and the English were gaining influence and power following the death of Henry VI in 1197. In the year 1555, Netherland was granted to Philips II, who was the son of Charles of the Habsburg dynasty and the king of Spain. As Philip II was a Catholic and part of the Netherlands protestant the Dutch opposed the new taxation.In 1581, the Union of Utrecht announced independence from Spain. The new country went through a progression of turns around in the war, yet at last, in 1648 the Spanish perceived the power of the Republic. Aside from all the destruction and difficulties from war, the Dutch kept with an extension on the oceans and disclosures of the new courses, lands, and routes.By the mid of the 17th century, the Republic was the greatest of Europe’s maritime power, and Amsterdam was the main monetary focus of the continent.Battles and wars about the rule over the seas with England and fights to oppose the developing power of France on the mainland followed naturally.During World War II in the year 1939 till 1945, the Netherlands was attacked and occupied by the Germans 1940. Following two years of relative success, when just the Jewish populace has been accused, the entire nation started to endure the burden of the fear of German and the war.The Dutch opposed against endeavours of Nazi Germany to join the Netherlands into the Third Reich during World War II, and the initiative of the Royal Family in the battle with the inhabitants, are as yet alive in the memories of the Dutch people.
77