Concept Map Of Trauma

TraumaIndividualGroupAffecting communities and culturesSingle EventMultiple EventsEg: mugging, rape, physical attack, work-related physical injury, physical injury. Eg: A life-threatening illness, multiple sexual assults. Domestic violence, emotional , sexual or physical, actual or threatened abuseShame, Gulit, Isolated, Victimised, Anger. leads to acute stress disorder. Those experienced pyhsical injury (functional impairment) in car crashes, fires, stabbings, shootings, falls, and other events have an increased likelihood of developing trauma-related mental disorders. These groups often share a common identity and history, as well as similar activities and concerns.First responders (police or medical personnel),crews and their families who lose members from a commercial fishing accident, a gang whose members experience multiple deaths and inju­ ries, teams of firefighters who lose members in a roof collapse, responders who attempt to save flood victims, and military service mem­ bers in a specific theater of operation.It may in­ volve violence in the form of physical or sexual assaults, hate crimes, robberies, workplace or gang-related violence, threats, shootings, or stabbings. eg., school shootingIt also includes actions that attempt to dismantle systemic cultural practices, resources, and identities, such as making boarding school attendance mandato­ry for Native American children or placing them in non-Native foster homes.Cultural trau­mas are events that, whether intentionally or not, erode the heritage of a culture—as with prejudice, disenfranchisement, and health inequities (e.g., late prenatal care, inability to afford medications, limited access to culturally appropriate health education, vicinity and quality of affordable medical services),Interpersonal TraumaIndividual FeaturesEvents that occur (and typically continue to reoccur) between people who often know each other, such as partner, spouses or parents and their children. Often re­ferred to as domestic violence, is a pattern of actual or threatened physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse. Examples include physical and sexual abuse, sexual assault, domestic violence, and elder abuse.Developmental traumas.specific events or experiences that occur within a given devel­opmental stage and influence later develop­ment, adjustment, and physical and mental health.Eg., related to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) ACEs can negatively affect a person’s well­ being into adulthood. Whether or not these experiences occur simultaneously, are time- limited, or recur, they set the stage for in­creased vulnerability to physical, mental, and substance use disorders and enhance the risk for repeated trauma exposure across the life span.highly associated with major depression, suicidal thoughts, PTSD, and dissociative symptoms.The National Comorbidity Studies examined the prevalence of trauma and defined childhood adversities as parental death, parental divorce/separation, life-threatening illness, or extreme economic hardshipCharacteristicsObjective characteristics are those elements of a traumatic event that are tangible or factual;Subjective characteristics include internal pro­cesses, such as perceptions of traumatic experi­ences and meanings assigned to them.Individual FactorsGenetic, biologi­cal, and psychological makeup and history influence the person’s experience and interpretation of, as well as his or her reactions to trauma.History of prior psychological trauma. The effects of trauma are cu­mulative; therefore, a later trauma that out­ wardly appears less severe may have more impact upon an individual than a trauma that occurred years earlier. Conversely, individuals who have experienced earlier traumas may have developed effective coping strategies or report positive outcomes as they have learned to adjust to the consequences of the trauma(s). This outcome is often referred to as posttrau­ matic growth or psychological growth.minimization, avoidance, Dissociation, depersonalization, and derealization, Trauma-induced hallucinations or delusions, Excessive or inappropriate guilt, Cognitive errors, Intrusive thoughts and memories, Triggers and flashbacksHistory of resilience: The ability to thrive beyond the trauma is associated with individual factors as well as situational and contextual factors. There are not only one or two primary factors that make an individual resilient; many factors contribute to the development of resilience. There is little research to indicate that there are specific traits predictive of resilience; instead, it appears that more general characteristics influ­ ence resilience, including neurobiology (Feder, Charney, & Collins, 2011), flexibility in adapt­ ing to change, beliefs prior to trauma, sense of self-efficacy, and ability to experience positive emotions (Bonanno & Mancini, 2011).History of mental disordersSociodemographicGenderRace, ethnicity, and cultureSexual orientation and gender identityPeople who are homelessImpact of TraumaLevel/ severity /reactions: Measured by the level of impairment or distress reportedSubtle, Insidious/graduleOutright destructive.Dependent on / Determined by characteristics of the individualthe type and characteristics of the event(s)developmental processes,the meaning of the traumasociocultural factorsInfluencesThe characteristics of the trauma and the subsequent traumatic stress reactions can dramatically influence how indi­viduals respond to the environment, relation­ships, interventions, and treatment services, and those same characteristics can also shape the assumptions that clients/consumers make about their world (e.g., their view of others, sense of safety), their future (e.g., hopefulness, fear of a foreshortened future), and themselves (e.g., feeling resilient, feeling incompetent in regulating emotions).THEORETICAL APPROACHSocial-ecological approach (Stokols, 1996)Bronfenbrenner’s (1979)To more adequately understand trauma, you must also consider the contexts in which it occurred. Understanding trauma from this angle helps expand the focus beyond individu­ al characteristics and effects to a broader sys­ temic perspective that acknowledges the influences of social interactions, communities, governments, cultures, and so forth, while also examining the possible interactions among those various influences.• Environmental factors greatly influence emotional, physical, and social well-being.• A fundamental determinant of health ver­ sus illness is the degree of fit between indi­ viduals’ biological, behavioral, and sociocultural needs and the resources avail­ able to them.• Prevention, intervention, and treatment approaches integrate a combination of strategies targeting individual, interperson­ al, and community systems.Psychological meaning of traumaDisruption of core assumptions and beliefsCultural meaning of traumaWas the trauma expected or unexpected?Were the trauma’s effects on the person’s life isolated or pervasive?Who was responsible for the trauma and was the act intentional?Was the trauma experienced directly or indirectlyWhat happened since the trauma?Common ExperiencesEmotionalCognitiveBehaviouralRe-enactments Self-harm and self-destructive behavioursConsumption of substances AvoidanceEmotional dysregulation, Numbing - deny that they have any feelings associated with their traumatic experiences and define their reactions as numbness or lack of emotions.believing that emotional expression is too dangerous or will lead to feeling out of control (e.g., a sense of “losing it” or going crazy).Natural or Human-Caused TraumasNaturalNatural traumatic experiences can directly affect a small number of people, such as a tree falling on a car during a rainstorm, or many people and communities, as with a hurricane. Natural events, often referred to as “acts of God,” are typically unavoidable.Human-CausedHuman-caused traumas are caused by human failure (e.g., technological catastrophes, accidents, malevolence - A malevolent person deliberately tries to cause harm or evil.) or by human design (e.g., war).Traumas perceived as intentionally harmful often make the event more traumatic for people and communities.The subsequent reactions to these traumas often depend on their intentionality.Who has it affectedSecond hand/indirect trauma Although the trauma directly affects just one individual, others who know the person and/or are aware of the trauma will likely experience emotional repercussions from the event(s) as well, such as recounting what they said to the person before the event, reacting in disbelief, or thinking that it could just as easily have hap¬pened to them, too.some are able to isolate the traumatic experience so that it does not invade ordinary, day-to-day living.experiencing another’s pain can be equally traumatic. For instance, parents often internalize the pain and suffering of their children when the children are undergoing traumatic circumstances (e.g., treatments for childhood cancer).The deterioration of normalcy, including the disruption of day-to-day activities and the damage of structures that house these routines, will likely erode the common threads that provide a sense of safety in individual lives and communities.The definition of a traumatic event (Criterion A) in the DSM–IV–TR (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) diagnostic criteria for PTSD is that an individual “experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others” (APA, 2000, p. 467).
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