(Social Psychology) The Self

The Self The (6) theories of the selfSelf-evaluation maintenance model Theory- Self-Perception theory (Bem, 1967, 1970)- Self-discrepancy (Higgins et al, 1987)- Regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998)- Control theory of self-regulation (Carver and Sheier, 1981, 1998)Self Esteem- Mortality salience- People learn about themselves by examining their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviours- “Behaviors are most important because they are more objective and observable,” I think thought is. Ex: reflection on behavior leads to one viewing themselves having certain characteristicso Focuses on people’s awareness of discrepancies between how they are, how they like to be¸ and how they should be (?)o Actual self: this is how I am – Ideal Self: how a person would like to see the self – the ought self: how a person thinks they ought to be, based of duty and responsibilityo Conflict between Actual & Ought to be leads to frustration and annoyance. Discrepancy between the actual and ideal self is said to lead to emotions such as sadness and disappointment.o People are motivated to reduce their self-discrepancies in order to eliminate, or at least attenuate, the experience of negative emotions – through self-regulation; through it lead progress towards the Ideal selfo Examine the type of actions that individuals take in order to align themselves with their values and aspirations.o Regulations: promotion and prevention. (promotion: I want to succeed – achievement, goals, prevention: I don’t want to fail – loss aversion, safety security)explains how people are able to maintain their self-esteem in situat ions where they engage in upward social comparisons,Self Awareness PerspectivesSocial cognitive perspectiveSocial learning perspectiveSociocultural perspectiveEvolutionary perspectivesocial interactions, experiences, and outside media influences influence individuals knowledge acquisitionstates that individuals learn behaviors from observing and imitating othersFocuses on comparing ourselves on the basis of dominance/competence hierarchiesFocuses on ancestors' behaviours that made life survivablePublic self awareness Private self awarenesswhen people are aware of how others see them.Public self-awareness can be beneficial in better guiding the person through understanding how others might view and perceive them and adjust their behavior accordingly Overtly high public self-awareness, however, leads debiliatiing behaviour due to increased nervousness and decreased self-esteem and therefore hinders performanceis usually temporarywhen people are aware of something about themselves that others might not be — like being anxious about reading out loudIf high, people are more likely to experience strong emotions, are more consistent in their emotions have better decision making, stress less, are more aware of their physiology and be highly intuitive.  However, they are more susceptible to depression - more likely to be neurotic (?)Introspection (gives understanding) & Self Reflection (allows to process what you know)Theories of self-awareness- Social comparison theoryLeon Festinger 1954 Emphasizes that individuals need to compare themselves to other people. Individuals determine their own social and personal worth based on how they stack up against other 1954- Self-perception theoryDaryl Bem 1967 People know themselves through observing and examining their own thoughts and behaviors(Lewis & Brooks-Gunn 1978) Self awareness, as far as we know, is not developed until 9-18 monthsSelf schemasSchematic - AschematicIs important and of value to the individual. Highly dictates their view of themselves and others - Not important and of value to the individual. Does not have great influence on a an individual's view of themselves and othersAssimilation - AccomodationAdding new information into already pre-existing schemas - Creating new schemasSchema: a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them Self-schemas: The self-concept has many distinct components for each individual and these components, which together form a person's overall self-concept, are known as self-schemas. Beliefs about oneself that help people process self-relevant information.Types of SchemasPerson schema"Individual" schemas - includes appearance, behavior, personality and preference.Social schemageneral knowledge about how people behave in certain social situationsSelf schemaA cognitive framework of beliefs and stored information about the self that dictates the individual's behaviour, perception, and influence.Self conceptSelf imageSelf-image is the personal view, or mental picture, that we have of ourselves. the internal dictionarySelf esteemrefers to whether you appreciate and value yourself.  Self confidence  is our belief in our abilitiesSocial reflection Ability to derive self-esteem from the successes and achievements of close others, without thinking about one's own achievement on a particular domainImplicit self-esteem Unconscious, spontaneous or automatic evaluation of the self,Narcissism Individual differences variable characterized by extremely high but insecure levels of self-esteem.Sociometer theory of self-esteem argues that people are motivated to maintain high levels at self, reem and do this by ensuring they are socially included.Ideal selfthe self that we could become, would like to become, and are (likely )afraid of becomingthe sum of all beliefs a person has about themselvesSelf concept claritythe extent to the self schemas are confidently, clearly, and concisely definedand are consistent with each other across the lineSocial PercieverAttribution theoryAntecedents: info, data, personal beliefs Attribution: perceived feeling or behaviorusing the information to arrive at explanations for events. Affects how you feel, think, and act.Types of attributionInterpersonal attribution: when you tell a story about yourself and tend to put yourself in a positive light.Predictive attribution:Explanatory attribution:Correspondent inference theory:When people see others acting in certain ways to they look for correspondence between motives and their behavior.Based on the degree of choice, the expectedness of behaviour and eth effects of behaviorHeider’s common sense theoryExplanations are based on “common sense” (personal). .Situational (external) Dispositional (personal)Fundamental attribution errorthe tendency for people over-emphasize dispositional behaviors observed in others while under-emphasizing situational explanations \  tendency to attribute others negative' actions to their character or personality while attributing own behavior to situational factors outside of their control.Ultimate attribution errorNegative outgroup behavior is dispositionally attributed, whereas positive out-group behavior is externally attributed or explained in an unfavorable way