Tour of a Cell

Tour of a Cell
Studying the Cell
Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic
Genetic Information: Nucleus to Ribosomes
Endomembrane System
Engery-Converting Organelles
Cytoskeleton
Connection between cells
- 1. Mitochondria
- All eukaryote cells
- cellular respiration
- outer & inner membrane (Cristae)
- own circular DNA
- only inherited from female parent
- Plants can be from both parents
- Use energy from sugars
- ATP(andenosine triphosphate)
- immediate energy source
- stores & releases energy
- mDNA
- free ribosomes
- reproduce in cells
- Matrix
- DNA & ribosomes enclosed by the inner
membrane
- need to make things between 2 membranes
- 2. Chloroplast
- some plant cells
- fruit, root plants & animals don‘’t have it
- 3 layers of outer & inner membrane
- own circular DNA
- Filled w/thick fluid=stroma
- where sugars are born
- DNA & ribosomes
- contain stacks(granum) of thylakoids
- chlorophyll inside
- chlorophll collects sunlight
- using stored energy
- mitochondrion
- can't surivie on its own. too dependent
- 3.Peroxisomes
- oxidation organelles
- single membrane
- many oxidation reactions
- Remove H from various molecules using O
- Hyroden peroxide
- H2O2
- Converts to H20
- Prepare fatty acids for mitochondria
- detox
- Glyoxysomoes
- special version of peroxisomes in fat titssue
- fats to sugar
- Cell Skeleton
- shape to cell
- Movement of organelles/whole cell
- activity of cell
- extending thru cytoplasm
- organizing structure
- Microfilaments
- Actin(globular protein)
- holds things together
- easily movable
- provides shape
- microvilli
- 3D network
- myosin & actin filaments in muscle
- eukaryotic cells bear tenison
- pulling force
- Intermediate filaments
- cable structure of several proteins
- permanent
- long term structure to cell
- remain after cell death
- Keratin in skin
- reinforcing shape
- fixing position of cell
- certain organelles
- Microtubules
- tubulin
- cilia
- large's
- flagella
- few cells, longer
- Both move fuild over the suface of tissue
- vesicles & organelles travel
- differ in beating patter
- uses ATP for energy
- organize chromosomes during cell divison
- unstable ends are different
- +end grows & disassembles faster
- -end grows& disassembles slower
- length can change rapidly
- coverage on centrosome(near nucleus)
- go out supporting cell
- providing tracing from center to surface cell
- Plant cell walls
- made of cellulose (polysaccharide)
- protects each cell
- provides support for plants weight
- Plasmodesmata connects cells thru PCW
- prevents isolation
- prevents excessive uptake of H2O
- found in prokaryotes fungi
- some unicellular Eukaryotes
- Secondary
- between plasma membrane
- primary wall cell protection & support
- Primary
- thin & flexible
- cell growth
- cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose
- Middle Lamella
- thin & sticky
- Polysaccharides
- pectin
- Animals' extracellular matrix
- Matrix (embedded)
- like a skeleton outside cell
- holds tissue together
- communicates w/ cells
- affects gene expression
- made largely of glycoproteins
- proteins + carbs
- collagen
- most abundant/main ingredient
- strong; hanging on matrix
- regulates cell behavior
- Intergrins
- proteins binding cell membrane to ECM
- Connected to cytoskeleton
- Cell junctions in animal cells
- 1. Tight
- makes a layer of cells fluid tight
- 2. Anchoring
- desmosomes
- like bolting
- very strong connections
- 3. Gap
- allow transport
- communication
- have gaps
- heart muscles
- Plasmodesmata
- in plants
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