Ruling the Countryside

Ruling the Countryside(HG8C3)
The Company becomes the Diwan
Revenue for the company
before 1865-purchased goods in india-imported gold,silver from -britain
in 1770-famine in bengal-1 million dead-one-third population,wiped
The need to improve agriculture
1793-Permanant Settlement introduced
Charles Cornwallis-governor general-india-during permanant settlement
rajas and taluqdars--called zamindars-settlement
The problem
permanant settlement created problems
lot of zamindaris sold-auctions
A new system
early 19 century-company officials start new system of revenue
in 1822-englishman Holt Mackenzie started new system in north-west bengal presidency
collection of revenue and payment to the village headman-called mahalwari system
The Munro system
in british territories-same ideas of permanent settlement
it was called ryotwar(ryotwari)
1819-1826-Thomas Munro-governor of Madras
tried on small scale-Captain Alexander Read in areas where he fought with Tipu Sultan
All was not well
few years after,new systems imposed-all not well with them
Crops for Europe
history of colour
Kalamkari print of andhra pradesh,India
William Morris-floral cotton print--famous poet,artist-19 century-englishman
indigo
India, the biggest producer of indigo at that time
what?
it is a blue dye extracted from the indigo plant
it was used in both of the famous cotton prints
why and where demand?
it grows in tropics
in 13 century-indian indigo-used by cloth manufacturers-italy,france,britain to dye cloth
Indigo plantations came up well in many parts of North America
1783-1789-production of indigo-fell into half-left with no plantation of indigo anywhere
how?
production
women carry indigo to vats(storage vessels)
stir the solution with vat-beater(device)
soaked in warm water(steeper vat)
solution turns green and blue-lime water to be added to it
indigo seperated-muddy sediment at bottom-clear liquid on top
liquid is drained off-sediment is indigo pulp
transferred to another vat(settling vat)-pressed and dried for sale
cultivation
two main methods
nij system
indigo produced in directly controlled lands
ryoti system
75 percent of cultivation is done in this method
britain turns to india
1789-europe suffers indigo loss-turns to india
1788-only 30 percent of indigo was exported-1810, 95 percent was exported-drastic increase
problem with Nij cultivation
planters found it tough to expand under this cultivation
led to conflicts and tension
one Bigha (a unit of land) of indigo cultivation=2 ploughs.1000 bighas=2000 ploughs-big problem
due to problem-only 25 percent cultivation is done in this method
indigo--land of ryots
under this system-planters forced to sign contract(satta)
this system acted as a good help to the people
The Blue Rebellion and After
March,1859-Bengalis refused to grow indigo
there were a lot of combats and rebellions between the people
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