Golden Age of Microbiology

Golden Age of Microbiology (1857-1914)
Happenings
Discovery of agents of many diseases
Role of immunity in the prevention and cure diseases
Studies on chemical activities of Microorganisms
Improved techniques for performing microscopy and culturing microorganisms
Developed vaccines and surgical techniques
Highlights
Fermentation and Pasturization
Pasture was requested to find out
why wine and beer soured
How to prevent food spoilage
Findings
Soured because yeast convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air. But in presence of air bacteria changed alcohol to vinegar (acetic acid) - FERMENATION
Leads to the establishment of the relationship between disease and microbes
To overcome spoilage: Heat the beer and wine just enough to kill most bacteria - PASTEURIZATION
Pasturization
Used till today
is the process of heating to a specific temperature for a predefined length of time and then immediately cooling it after it is removed from the heat
The process slows spoilage caused by microbial growth in the food
The Germ theory of disease
First proven by Robert Koch in 1876 ( The winner of 1905 Nobel prize in Medicine)
Discovered Bacillus anthracis in blood of cattle that died of anthrax - cultured the Bacteria - Inject into Healthy animals - animals sick and died - re isolate the bacteria- same with the inoculated ones
Establishment of Koch's Postulates
1.The same Pathogene must be present in every case of disease
2.The Pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
3. The pathogene from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into healthy laboratory animals
4. The pathogene must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism
Exceptions to Koch's Postulates
1. Some Micro organisms could not be cultured in artificial media - need to use another means such as tissue cells
2.Diseases caused by different species of Microorganisms could elicit similar symptoms
3.Some Pathogenes can cause several disease conditions
Vaccination
Established 70 years before Koch's discovery of anthrax
Developed without knowing how it works by Edward Jenner (Father of Immunology)
Jenner found that injections with cowpox protected agains smallpox. His method of immunization via vaccination ushered in the new science of immunology
Jenner's Experiment
Scrapings from cowpox blisters innoculated into healthy volunteer
Volunteer became midly sick and recovered
never contracted either cowpox or small pox again
Vaccine for Small pox was developed!
Theory confirmed by Pasture after 80 years using Bacteria that causes Fowl cholera
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