Conducting Literature Reviews

Conducting Literature Reviews
A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on the Content of Wikipedia
Quality of Content
Multidisciplinary and general
Medicine and health
Readability and Style
Reliability assessment of Wikipedia
positive or equivalent evaluations
negative or inferior evaluations
verifiability: citing other sources
quality-related trends
Antecedents of Quality
Group characteristics
Editing patterns and processes
Featured Articles
Size of Wikipedia
Micro-Level Size Factors
Macro-Level Size Factors
serve as the background for an empirical study or as an independent, standalone piece that provides a valuable contribution in its own right
Task A
Task B
Task C
General procedure
Formulation the problem
This step requires authors to define the review's objective(s), provide definitions of key concepts and justify the need for a review article
Guidelines to Evaluate Standalone Literature Reviews
reviewed the
reference lists of the abovementioned sources
selected those papers that offer
practical or pragmatic guidelines on how to perform literature reviews
validated our list of papers using the
backward and forward search techniques
carefully scrutinized each paper
reflected on the usefulness and necessity of each activity, or guideline, in the
review process by questioning how it satisfied a specific purpose in terms of the study’s methodological
Types of Literature Review
Narrative reviews
summarize previously published research on a topic of interest
Developmental reviews
provide a research community with new conceptualizations, research models, theories, frameworks or methodological approaches
Cumulative reviews
compile empirical evidence to map bodies of literature and draw overall conclusions regarding particular topics od interest
Aggregative reviews
bring together prior findings and test specific research hypotheses or propositions. By rigorously collating and pooling prior empirical data, aggregative reviews are particularly valued for providing evidence-based validations of pre-specified theoretical models and propositions.
Descriptive review
seek to determine the extent to which a body of empirical studies in a specific research area supports or reveals any interpretable patterns or trends with respect to pre-existing propositions, theories, methodologies or findings
Scoping reviews
attempt to provide an initial indication of the potential size and nature of the available literature on a particular topic
use specific data extraction techniques and statistical methods to aggregate quantitative data in the form of standard effect measures
Qualitative systematic reviews
attempt to search, identify, select, appraise, and abstract data from quantitative empirical studies to answer the following main questions
Umbrella reviews
a tertiary type of study that integrates relevant evidence from multiple systematic reviews (qualitative or quantitative) into one accessible and usable document to address a narrow research question
Theoretical reviews
draws on existing conceptual and empirical studies to provide a context for identifying, describing, and transforming into a higher order of theoretical structure and various concepts, constructs or relationships
Realist reviews
theory-driven interpretative reviews that were developed to inform, enhance, extend
or alternatively supplement conventional systematic reviews by making sense of heterogeneous evidence about complex interventions applied in diverse contexts in a way that informs policy decision making
Critical reviews
aim to critically analyze the extant literature on a broad topic to reveal weaknesses, contradictions, controversies, or inconsistencies
the goal of rigor
define internal validity as the extent to
which the review represents accurately the phenomena it is intended to describe or explain
define objectivity as the extent to which a
review’s findings are determined by the objects of the inquiry and not by the researchers’ biases and
define external
validity as the extent to which the findings have applicability in other contexts
define external
validity as the extent to which the findings have applicability in other contexts
Searching the literature
This is the beginning of the data collection phase. At this time,
authors must identify a range of information sources as well
as the studies that are pertinent to the review.
Screening for inclusion
The next step of the data collection phase includes evaluating
the applicability of the studies previously identified and
selecting or excluding them.
Assessing quality
This step involves assessing the methodological quality of the
primary studies.
Extracting data
This step involves gathering applicable information from each
of the primary studies included in the review.
Analyzing and synthesizing data
This last step requires authors to organize, compare, collate,
summarize, aggregate or interpret the information previously
extracted in order to suggest a new contribution to knowledge.