Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding
Metallic Bonding
Characteristics
Metal consists of orderly arrangement of positive metal ions
Malleable
Hardness
Good electrical conductors
High melting and boiling point
Layers of atoms can slide easily over one another
Alloys are much harder
Alloys are mixtures of metals
Orderly arrangement disrupted by atoms of another metal
Layers no longer slide over each other easily
Electric current consists of moving electrons
Molecular bonds are strong and hard to break
Electrons free to move about between ions
Surrounded by sea of electrons
Definition
Process where atoms combine to form molecules
Each atom attains octet configuration
Ionic Bonding
Formed between a metal and a non-metal
Metal atoms lose valence electrons
Non-metal atoms gain valence electrons
Loss/gain of electrons
To attain octet configuration
Between cations and anions
Compounds formed
Solid at room temperature
High melting point and boiling point
Strong force of attraction between molecules
Forms positive and negative ions
Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous
Dissociation of compound in solutions allows free movement of electrons
Giant ionic lattice
Electrostatic interaction between positive and negative ions
Usually water soluble
Simple or complex ions
Simple ions
Complex ions
Formed when an atom of an element loses or accepts electrons to form a charged particle
Is a charged particle that consists of more than 1 atom of 1 or more elements
Covalent Bonding
Formed between 2 non-metals
Both atoms need to gain valence atoms
Both atoms share valence electrons instead of trading
Sharing of electrons
"Shared" electrons travel around the nuclei of both atoms
To attain octet configuration
Simple molecular
Compounds formed
Often liquid or gas at room temperature
Low melting point and boiling point
Exist as neutral molecules (No ions)
Do not conduct electricity when molten or aqueous
Can form multiple bonds
Tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds
Weak intermolecular forces
Compound remains as same molecule in water and does not allow for free movement of electrons
Equals to eight minus group number
Carbon and Hydrogen have similar electronegativities and are found together in most covalent compounds
Carbon and Hydrogen react to form Carbon Dioxide and water when heated with Oxygen gas
Macromolecular
Compounds formed
High melting and boiling point
Strong covalent bonds in structure
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