Cell Mind Map

Cell-Mind-Map
Cell wall
- tough, rigid, thick non-living structure
- give very difine shapes
- Function:
- maintaining the shape of the cells
- providing strength and give mechanical support
- maintains the turgidity of cells
- allow exchange substance during homeostasis
- an important reserve of carbohydrates
Plasma membrane
- encloses the cytoplasm/protoplasm of the cells
- provides shape and protection for cells
- semi-permeable or selective permeable
- protein are embedded in phospholipid bilayer
Cytoskeleton
- made of filamentous protein networks and skeleton of the cells
- microfilament
- microtubules
- intermediate filaments
Nucleus
- largest and most prominent organelle
- oval or sperical shape
- store genetic material in the form of DNA
- Nucleolus
- to synthesize ribosomal RNA subunits for the synthesis of protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER)
- next to nucleus
- synthesizing protein,modifying,packaging and transport of secretory proteins
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)
- diverse metabolics activities
Ribosomes
- small,solid, spherical granules
- an assembly of two ribosomal RNA(rRNA) that are synthesizedd in nucleus
- synthesized protein molecules
Mitocondria
- bounded by two layerof membrane
- the cristae partially divide by mitochondrial fluid called mitochondrial matrix
- mitochondrial matrix contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes
- powerhouse of cell
- energy production for the cell
Chloroplast
- biconvex disc shape
- have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes
- enclosed by two memmbranes separated by intermembrene space
Lysosomes
- dark spherical bodies, recyling center of the cell
- contains hydrolytic enzymes
- to digest macromolecules in the cells
- recycling centre
- also digest the remains of dead organelle(autolysis process)
Golgi body
- consist of a stack of flattened membranous sacs known as cisterinae
- receives,stores,concetrate,modifies,finishes and sorts proteins
Cartilage
- Hyaline cartilafge
- most common form
- Elastic cartilage
- contains many elastic fibers giving int a yellowish color
- Fibrous cartilage
- contains a dense network of collagenn fibers
Blood
- Red blood cells ( Erythrocytes)
- White blood cells ( Leukocytes )
- Granulocytes
- Neutrophils
- eosinophils
- Basophils
- Agranulocytes
- Lymphocytes
- Monocytes
- Platelets ( Trombocytes)
Epithelial tissues
- squomous epithelium
- cuboidal epithelium
- columnar epithelium
- sratified epithelium
- stratified squamous
- found in epidermis of skin and in the lining of the innermost layer of esophagus
- sratified cuboidal
- found in the excretory duct of sweat glands
- stratified columnar
- found in the secretory ducts of the mamary glands
- pseudostratified epithelium
- appear to be layer but layer do not exist
Bones
- act as lever
- converting muscle contraction into movement
- Spongy bones
- found in the center of flat bones and in the end of long bones
- Compact bones
- form by osteocytes located in the lacunae
Nerve tissues
- neurones
- a cell body
- dendrites
- the axon
- neuroglial cells
Plant cells
- have fixed shape
- have cell wall
- have vacuoles
- maintaining turgidity of cells
- have chloroplast
- contain chloropyll for photosynthesis
- food storage at starch
- do not have centrioles
Animal cells
- do not have fixed shape
- do not have cell wall
- do not have vacuoles
- do not have chloroplast
- food storage at  glycogen
- have centrioles
Eukaryotic cells
- Consist plants,animals,funfi,slieme moulds,protozoa and algae
- chromosome are present
- have distinct nucleus
- many membranous organelles
- cell wall was made by cellulose
- undergo mitosis and meiosis
Prokaryotic cells
- Consist of bacteria and archeabacteria
- no chromosom,only circular DNA stands
- no nucleus
- cell wall made by peptidoglycan
- undego binary fusion
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