Atom Element Compound

What is Matter?
3 states:
Matter can change between the 3 states: solid
to liquid (melting), liquid to gas (evaporation),
gas to liquid (condensation), liquid to sold
(freezing), solid to gas (sublimation), and gas to
solid (deposition)
Particle theory of matter: matter is composed
of tiny objects called particles, particles have
space between them, particles are always in
motion, and particles in a substance attract
each other.
Classifying Matter
Classifies as a pure substance or a mixture
Pure substances are either elements or
Mixtures can be heterogenous or homogenous.
Physical Properties
Can be easily reversed
Colour and lustre
Chemical Properties
Chemical reaction
Chemical change
Results in the formation of a new substace
cannot be reversed easily
Molecular Compounds
formed when nonmetals combine
can be any of the 3 states at room temperature
good insulators, poor conductors
Low boiling points
Naming molecular compounds
First element always stays the same
second element changes to end in "ide"
Writing formulas
Identify symbol of first element
Identify symbol of second element
Add subscripts to indicate the amount
The Atom
Important Discoveries that Shaped Atomic
John Dalton
Matter is made of small invisible atoms
Atoms of an element are identical in properties
Atoms of different elements have different
Atoms of different elements can combine to
form new substances
J.J Thomson
Used a cathode ray
Discovered electrons
Argued that all elements contain electrons
Atoms were composed of smaller particles
Created Thomson's model
Earnest Rutherford
Shot positive charged particles at pure gold
Discovered the nucleus
Revised Thomson's model
James Chadwick
Discovered neutrons
Discovered protons
Each neutron carries about the same mass as
each proton.
Niels Bohr
Created Bohr diagrams
Shows that electrons reside in shells and jump
between each shell by gaining or losing
First shell has a maximum of two electrons
Every other shell has a maximum of eight
Quantum Mechanical Model: electrons exist in
specific energy levels as a cloud
Alloys are a mixture of two or more metals
Metals: shiny, silver or grey in colour, great
conductors, and malleable.
Nonmetals: there are only 17 elements
Metalloids have metallic and nonmetallic
properties and are semiconductors.
A Summary of the Atom
Resides in the nucleus
Has an electric charge of 1+
Has a relative mass of 1836
Resides in the nucleus
Has an electric charge of 0
Has a relative mass of 1837
Resides in energy levels surrounding the
Has an electric charge of 1
Has a relative mass of 1
The Element Symbols
Each element has its own symbol
First letter is capital and the second is
The Periodic Table
Atomic number
Atomic mass
Ionic Compounds
Atomic theory supports the periodic table
Group 1 elements lose 1 electron (1+ charge)
Group 2 elements lose 2 electrons (2+ charge)
Group 312 elements lose different numbers of
Group 13 elements lose 3 electrons (3+ charge)
Group 14 elements can lose or gain 4 electrons
(4+ 4 charge)
Group 15 elements gain 3 electrons (3 charge)
Group 16 elements gain 2 electrons (2 charge)
Group 17 elements gain 1 electron (1 charge)
Group 18 elements gain no electrons (0)
Lewis structures show the valence electrons of
an atom.
Ionic compounds
High melting points
forms crystals
dissolves in water
becomes said at room temperature
Naming Ionic Compounds
First element stays the same
Second element ends in "ide"