Neolithic Age Mind Map

Neolithic Age
Creation, expansion, and
interaction of economic
systems
Pastoralism a way of life
dependent on large herds of
grazing livestock; became common
in arid regions like the Sahara
This made pastoralists, people in
charge of moving the herds around to
new feeding/watering places, more
common
State-building, expansion,
and conflict
Some historians think that there were battles
between the farmers and the foragers, because the
farmers were clearing all the land and therefore
reducing the foragers' food supply
Other historians believe that there was
peace between the farmers and the
foragers
The archaelogist Colin Renfrew thinks that the
farmers with fields farthest away from their homes
moved and built settlements closer to their fields,
leading to a peaceful expansion of farmers
The population of farmers steadily
increased because they had a
dependable food supply
Studies show that farmers spread
from southeast Europe to northwest
Europe
Development and
interaction of cultures
Religion
Farmers and
foragers had
different religions
Farmers' religion: focused on Mother
Earth, the Sky God, and the gods of
fire, wind, and rain
Foragers' religion: focused on
sacred groves, springs, and wild
animals
Kinship led to respect and reverence
for dead ancestors; old people got
fancy burials
People built megaliths for their
religions; one example is
Stonehenge
The town of Catal Huyuk was very religious there
was 1 shrine for every 2 houses! Statues of fat
women suggest that the people worshipped a
female goddess
Development and
transformation of social
structures
Farming communities were
connected through kinship
and marriage
This led to land owned by
kinship units, aka lineages or
clans
Researchers think that there was
more emphasis on one's mother's
lineage
Several Neolithic villages grew into towns,
such as Jericho and Catal Huyuk; however,
Catal Huyuk did not have a social class
system
Women seemed to be more powerful than men -
they administered the religion in Catal Yuyuk,
lineage was traced through one's mother, and
researchers think that women might have ruled in
early times.
Art
The people in the town Catal
Huyuk were into art they
painted hunting scenes
Interaction between
humans and the
environment
The rise of agriculture led to the decline of
wandering, nomadic people instead,
humans began building permanent
settlements
Humans started growing food
and burning down trees to
create space
Because farmers' diets were less
varied, farmers tended to be shorter
and more susceptible to disease than
foragers
Farming settlements were VERY vulnerable
to disease because of all the human waste,
vermin/insects, and the domesticated
animals
Humans developed irrigation, a system
used to bring water to the fields in dry
areas
Metalworking became popular
Agricultural revolution
People didn't hunt as
much as they used to
Food production (growing
plants) became more
common
Lots of new stone tools: stone heads
to work the soil, stone chips stuck in
bone to cut grass, and stone mortars
to cut grain
Fire used to clear
trees/bushes, so plants could
be grown
Shifting cultivation farmers grew
plants on one section of land for
several years, then left that
section fallow (inactive) to let it
regain fertility while they used
different fields for a while
People also
began
domesticating
animals for meat,
milk, wool, and
energy; also,
animal droppings
made great
fertilizer
Happened all over the world
Greece grew wheat and
barley starting in 6000 BC
Middle East people rotated between
growing different plants, to keep the
soil fertile
Eastern Sahara grew wheat and
barley; raised sheep, goats, and
cattle
South of the Sahara grew
sorghums, millets, and
yams
China rice;
domesticated water
buffalo
India rice, hyacinth
beans, green grams, and
black grams; domesticated
humped-back zebu
Americas (Tehuacan
Valley of Mexico) corn
Peru potatoes and quinoa
Mesopotamia started using agriculture in
5000 BC; grew barley and vegetables; had
to use irrigation because of the dry, arid
climate
Supported a HUGE
population increase -
there were about 2
million people
13,000 years ago,
and there were
50-100 million
people in 1000 BC.
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