River Valley Civilizations
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River Valley Civilizations
Governement and Leaders
The Shang Dynasty was ruled by a strongmonarchy, where the kings were surrounded bya court who performed rituals to keep thekingdom safe and strong.
The Shang Dynasty had governors along with aking in hopes of keeping order.
The Zhou Dynasty implemented the Mandateof Heaven which stated that the gods wouldnot allow there to be a corrupt ruler.
The Zhou Dynasty used the Mandate of Heavento explain the rise and downfall of dynasties inChina. So dynasties that lost power were corrupt.
Religion was the main factor in determining thestructure of the government in Sumer.
Priests originally governed the city-states untilwar chiefs transformed into Kings who thenruled over the community.
Every city-state of Sumer was a separatepolitical unit, each with an individualgovernment.
The Kings that ruled in the city-states,served as the gods' chiefrepresentatives, performing ceremoniesto please the gods.
Economy and Trade
In the Shang Dynasty bronze held animportance to the economy as theirmetalwork relied on it.
Agriculture was a major influence on theeconomy during the Shang Dynasty as themajority of people spent their time tendingto crops as farmers.
The Zhou Dynasty learned how to use iron intheir metalworking which was cheaper, andquick to cast.
During the Zhou Dynasty as the populationgrew better transportation andcommunication allowed better tradethroughout China.
Obtained many of the materials for theirbuildings &amp; art through trade, but lacked rawmaterials such as wood and metals.
To get resources they would trade with otherpeople across Southwest Asia.
Their would mainly exchange textiles formetals, timber, and stone.
Trade vastly enriched Sumer causing distinctsocial rankings to develop.
Science and Technology
The Shang Dynasty developed a systemof writing using oracle bones, writing onthe bones themselves.
The Shang Dynasty created a calendar basedon the cycles of the moon along withpotentially one of the first systems of money.
The Zhou Dynasty developed metalwork fromsolely bronze to both bronze and iron.
The Zhou Dynasty built more roads, and canalsallowing better transportation andcommunication throughout China.
Sumerians used geometry in creating theirbuilding structures and irrigation systems.
Invented the wheel, using it to make pottery anddifferent vehicles.
Used bronze to improve upon and makestronger weapons and tools such as the plow.
Further developing their medical knowledgelearning to perform basic surgeries
The Shang Dynasty believed in the afterlife.
The Shang would often make ritual meals fortheir deceased ancestors in remembrance, alsobelieving the steam from the food would nourishtheir ancestors spirits.
The Zhou Dynasty believed in two religions,Confucianism, and Daoism.
Confucianism, the belief that everyone should betreated humanely. Daoism, the belief that peopleshouldn't follow the laws of society, but the lawsof nature.
Practiced Polytheism, which is the worship ofmany gods.
Believed that gods controlled all naturalforces, such as the air and weather.
Believed a god protected each city-state.
Believed that gods were like humans in thatthey ate, drank, fell in love, married, andfought.
Geography and Agriculture
Two rivers supplied the early Chinesecivilizations with their water, the Yellow Riverand the Yangzi River.
The lands between the rivers were very fertiledue to the floods that deposited rich soil into the river flood plains.
Due to the rivers, rich soil, and irrigation it waseasy for China's agriculture to flourish.
Farmers during the Zhou Dynasty were able to create new techniques in farming allowingthem to obtain food surpluses from the alreadyfertile land.
Found their rich soil in the fertile crescentbetween the Tigris river and the Euphrates river.
In order to alleviate the problems withflooding the Sumerians would organizegroups of people to solve the issuesthat arose.
Began farming very early due to the swampy, flatregion of Mesopotamia that which was suited foragriculture.
Floods between the two rivers left fertile mudcalled silt, which enriched the soil.
Arts and Education
The Shang Dynasty artists created decorativevessels and objects, to potentially use inreligious rituals.
Religion during the Shang Dynasty led toadvances in working with bronze, especially tocreate artwork.
The Zhou Dynasty's education system relied ontwo philosophies, Doaism and Confucianism.
During the Zhou Dynasty under Confucianismit was the duty of educated people to devotethemselves to public service.
Architecture built and developed by theSumerians included arches, ramps, columns,and ziggurats.
Sumerian sculptures were typically statues withlarge open eyes, and small objects carved outof ivory.
They developed cylinder seals to engrave wetclay with detailed design, also used to showownership of documents.
Applied the use of cuneiform, the Sumerianwiring system, by using tools called styluses tomake symbols on clay tablets in order to notonly keep records, but to write laws, grammar, stories, poems, and songs.
Social Structure and Family Life
During the Shang Dynasty people who wereconsidered elite had available time to pursueleisure activities.
The majority of people during the ShangDynasty worked in the fields and tended tocrops.
In the Zhou Dynasty children were expected torespect both their parents and elders, and inreturn parents were to show their childrenlovingness, and kindness.
The structure of the Zhou Dynasty was basedupon two different philosophies, Daoism andConfucianism.
Priests and Kings held the highest status inSumer.
Large landowners and rich merchants held thesecond highest status.
The majority of sumerians held themiddle class status as artisans, farmers,and laborers.
Women and men had distinct roles, as womenstayed home and took care of the children andmen held political power and made laws.