Bonding Pdms to Pdms

Bonding-Pdms-to-Pdms
MoS2
properties
piezoelectricity: piezoelectric coefficient: e11 = 2.9 ×
10–10 C m−1
piezoelectricity of singl layer mos2 for energy conversion
and piezotronics
electrical
screening
bandgap: intrinsic direct 1.8 eV indirect bandgap 1.2 eV
bilayer
strain induced bandgap tuning
mobility @ RT: 200 cm^2/Vs
on/off ration: 1x10^8
doping
electrical properties on hBN
effect of interlayer coupling on electrical properties
mechanical
thickness: 0.65nm
mechanical
pressure confinement effect
strain effect on effective mass
gauge factor
bi layer: 230
bulk: 200
uniaxial and biaxial strain
wettability
friction
optical
electroluminescence
raman spectroscopy
MoS2 488nm laser
382.9 cm^ 1 406.0 cm^ 1
heat conductance: 7.45 W/mK @ 300K suspended monolayer: 34
W/mK suspended multilayer: 52 W/mK
chemical
one layer of Mo sandwiched between two layers of S by covlent
bonding packed in hexagonal arrangement
sheets held together by weak van der Waals interaction
lattice constant:  3.160 Å
thermal
application
chemical vapor sensor (comparison with graphene devices)
transistor
channel
contacts
injet printed Ag contacts
CVD grown
multilayer
single layer
measurement
flakes
single layer
measurement
flexible transistor
on polyimide
charge trapping at the interface
thin film transistor
strain sensing
self screened transistor with bottom graphene electrode
transfer characteristics
suspended transistor
intrinsic origin of the hysteresis suspended mos2
supercondictivity
MEMS/NEMS
membrane
resonator
pressure sensor
rf vibrational device
Strain dependent damping
all electrical readout in vhf band
nanopores open atom by atom
direct and scalable CVD membranes
hydrogen separation
water desalination
water desalination with nanoporous mos2
tunable, strain controlled nanoporous mos2 filter for water
desalination
flexible MoS field effect transistor for gate tunable strain
sensor
bio/medicin
review: bio sensors
functionalication rection between mos2 and thiole
sensors
synthesis and sensor applications of mos2 based nanocomposites
gas sensor
o2 sensor backgate voltage enduced strain enhanced performance
tactile sensor for electronic skin
bending response theory
sensing
supercapacitor
MoS2 Graphene composite coin cell supercapasitor
heterostructure
electric field and strain tunable mos2/h bn/graphene vertical
heterostructure
review
one dimensional electrical contacts to mos2 heterostructure
contacting
graphene electrode
contact resistance
carrier transport at the metal mos2 interface
metal contacts
vam der waals interaction and lattice mismetch at mos2/metal
interfaces
chromium as ideal contact metal
transfer
wet etch method
BOE etch
spin coat: ar p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 etch SiO2 with BOE
NaOH etch
spin coat: ar p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 etch SiO2 with NaOH
KOH etch
spin coat: ar p 649.04 30s@1800rpm,2 cratch the corners of
the chip place a drop of KOH etch sio2
ultrasound method
pdms stamp
mos2 flake
polymer free large area transfer for transistors fragmented
mos2
fast Seak and peal in water drop with Polysterene in Touluene
polymer
exfoliation
liquid phase exfoliation
analytics
Atomic force microscope (AFM)
systems
PSIA XE 100
tapping mode (dynamic force microscopy): use NC mode and
NC tip at 5kHz adjust drive that resonance peak is in y units 1 3
set point a little left of resonance peak line set point bit higher than
half the resonance peak height best parameters: gain: 2.2 scan
speed: 0.7 Hz
non contact mode (nc mode): use NC mode and NC tip at 5kHz
adjust drive that resonance peak is in y units 1 3 set point a little
right of resonance peak line set point bit higher than half the resonance
peak height best parameters: gain: 2.2 scan speed: 0.3 Hz
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
focused ion beam (FIB)
Raman Spectroscopy
graphene 532nm and 633 nm laser
single layer spectrum
D peak: defect peak ~1350 cm^ 1
d peak redshift
d peak broadening
d peak intensity increase
defect increase
d peak intensity decrease
defect decrease
d peak blue shift
d peak narrowing
G peak (4x 2D peak): ~1580 cm^ 1
g peak narrowing
g peak broadening
g peak red shift
g peak blue shift
g peak intensity decrease
g peak intensity increase
2D peak: ~2700 cm^ 1
2d peak red shift
strain
thermal heating
laser excitation wavelength decrease
2d peak broadening
defect increase
layer number increase (band splitting)
bernal stacked bilayer
2d peak intensity increase
2d peak intensity decrease
2 d peak blue shift
laser excitation wavelength increase
2d peak narrowing
layer number decrease
defect decrease
2d/G ratio increase
layer number decrease
decreased doping level
2d/G ratio decrease
layer number increase
increased doping level
multilayer spectrum
5+ layer not distinguishable from graphite
suspended graphene
probing mechanical properties of graphene
ripple formation in suspended graphene
strain effect on suspended graphene by polarized raman
probing charged impurities in suspended graphene
intrinsic properties of exfoliated free standing graphene
raman of graphene and bilayer under biaxial strain (bubbles)
uniaxial strain on graphene
elastic properties of suspended graphene
raman spectroscopy and kelvin force probe microscopy
temperature
temerpature dependent raman measurements mismatche between
graphene and substrate
thermal transport in suspended graphene (vacuum and gaseous
environment)
on substrate graphene
nanometer scale strain variation in graphene
interface coupling in twisted multilayer graphene
rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers
spacially resolved raman of single and few layer graphene
graphene fingerprint
thickness dependent native strain
surface enhanced raman scattering of hybrid structures with
ag nanoparticles ans graphene
MoS2 488nm laser
382.9 cm^ 1 406.0 cm^ 1
on hBN
raman shift
mos2 on substrate
shift in electron irradiated monolayer
hBN
Keithley SCS 4200 Parameter Analyzer
Light Microscope
light field
dark field
Elipsometry
Laser confocal microscope
brands
Olympus LEXT OLS4100
probe station
Lakeshore cryo probestation
fabrication processes
Evaporation
Sputtering
Wet etching
copper
Sodiumpersulfate 20g/500ml H2O
FeCl3 8%: 20g FeCl3 + 230g H2O
sio2
Buffered oxide etch (BOE) 5:1 Buffered oxide etch (BOE), 5:1
Buffered HF, (5 40% NH4F:1 49%HF): 100 nm/min (thermal oxide)
concentrated HF (49%)
10:1 HF 10 H2O: 1 HF: 23nm/min (thermal oxide)
HF vapor HF + H2O vapor, 1cm over dish with 49% HF: 66 nm/min (thermal
oxide)
silicon nitride (Si3N4)
Buffered oxide etch (BOE), Buffered HF 5:1 Buffered oxide etch
(BOE), 5:1 Buffered HF, (5 40% NH4F:1 49%HF): 60 nm/min (PECVD)
phosphoric acid
Si
KOH Isotropic, 30% by weight, 80°C: 1100 nm/min
poly si
KOH Isotropic, 30% by weight, 80°C: >1000 nm/min
Aluminum
KOH 30% by weight, 80°C: >800 nm/min
Dry etching
graphene
RIE: O2 80sccm O2 57mtorr 80W 20s
sio2
RIE: CF4 +O2 60mtorr 100W 44 nm/min (thermal oxide)
RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 33nm/min
si
RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 1500nm/min
Si3N4
RIE: SF6 + Ar 40sccm SF6 30sccm Ar 10mtorr 50W 150nm/min
mos2
RIE: BCl3 + Ar 15sccm BCl3 60sccm Ar 0.6 Pa 50W 5min
RIE: Ar coupled plasma RIE (CCP RIE) 100 sccm Ar 10 Pa 50W >
90s
Layer by layer etching with cl and ar
Photolithography
photoresists
positive exposed to light becomes soluble unexposed remains
insoluble
SPR 700 1.2
LOR 5A
negative exposed to light becomes insoluble unexposed is dissolved
by developer
OSTE+
SU 8
systems
karl suss MJB 3 mask aligner
karl suss MA6/BA6 mask aligner
E beam lithography
e beam resists
negative exposed to e beam becomes insoluble unexposed is
dissolved by developer
AZ nLof 2007
su 8
positive exposed to e beam becomes soluble unexposed remains
insoluble
AR P 679.02
AR P 649.04
AR P 617.14
systems
Raith
FEI + Raith Elphy Quantum
graphene fabrication
graphen small hole kitting
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
Critical point drying (CPD)
atomic layer deposition (ALD)
graphene
selective deposition of al2o3 on graphene
mos2 self limiting
annealing
rapid thermal annealing (RTA)
forming gas annealing
system
hereus oven
3.0 flow of n2 ramp: 1. from 30°C in 30 min to 430°C 2. stay 30min
at 430°C 3. cool down 4. take the chips out
remove PMMA (200nm): Haereus oven ramp: 10°C/min 450°C for
1h Ar/H2 (5%) (3 l/min / 0.1 l/min)
wafer dicing
spin coating
synthesis
chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Thermal chemical vapor deposition (thermal CVD)
graphene
systems
nanoCVD
substrates
on nickel
on copper
on 300mm wafer
large area at normal pressure with H2
ultrasmooth copper mechanical property enhancement
surface engineering of cu fold to grow cm sized single crystalline
graphene
on insulater with nickel clusters
thermal decomposition of sic: epitaxial graphene growth
arbitrary
hydrogen terminated Germanium
steel anti corrosion coating
graphene growth on patterned mo and removal of ma with sulfuric
acid
bilayer
bernal stacked
multilayer
nitrogen doped n type graphene
growth with acetylene properties on strain sensitivity and
electrical properties
direct grow of patterned graphene
mos2
sulfurization of Mo
highly crystalline
large area
by RF magnetron sputtering
substrates
sio2
graphene
suspended
h BN single and few layer growth
direct growth of membranes on apertures
cvd grown
substrate
au
molybdenum foils
transfer free growth Using a Solution Precursor by a Laser Irradiation
periodic growth of single layer: create periodic holes in
SiO2 and use as seeds for mos2 growth
growth at atmospheric pressure
layered heterostructure mos2/ws2
vertical standing mos2 nanosheets
TMDs
hBN
oxygen assisted growth on TMD
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
graphene
synthesis of graphene layer nanosheet coating
graphene synthesis directly on polymer
FET as carbon source patterned 30nm Ni layer as catalysator
laser treatmentfor direct synthesis
lpcvd
large area hbn
molecular beam epitaxy
graphene
on hBN
strain engineered graphene
visualization of grain sturcture of 2d materials
theory
electrical
resistivity: ρ = R * A / l = [ Ωm] ρ: resistivity R: resistance A
= w * t: cross section area = width * thickness l: length most used:
Ωmm, Ωµm
capacitance: C = ε_0 * ε_r * A / h = [F] C: capacitance ε_0: permitivity
ε_r: relative permitivity A: area h: plate distance
dieelectric capacitance: C = ε_0 * ε_r / t_ox = [F] C: capacitance
ε_0: permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity t_ox: oxide thickness
pull in voltage: V_pull in = sqrt(2/3)^3 * (k * h^3 / ε_0 * ε_r
*A)) V_pull in: pull in voltage k: spring constant h: plate distance
ε_0 permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity A: area
electron mobility (graphene): µ = (L / W) * g_m / C_ox * V_ds µ:
mobility L: channel length W: channel width g_m provided by keithley
g_m = dI_ds/dV_g at each V_gs point is calculated for each g_m point
g_m = I_ds / ( V_gs V_d) or for each g_m point g_m = (y2 y1)/(x2 x1)
V_ds: source drain voltage C_ox: oxide capacitance C_ox =
ε_0 * ε_r / d_ox ε_0 permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity d_ox:
oxide thickness
gate leakage: parallel shift of the curve indicates a gate
leakage always check I_gate and plot it while measurement
mechanical
mechanical stress: σ = F / A = [N/m^2] σ: mechanical stress F:
force A = w * t: cross section area = width * thickness
mechanical strain: ε = σ / E = s / l = [ ] ε: mechanical strain σ: mechanical
stress E: young's modulus s: displacement due to mechanical strain
l: length
force
Force (related to mechanical stress): F = A * E * ε = [N] F: force
A = w * t: cross section area = width * thickness ε: mechanical strain
electrostatic force: F = 1/2 * ε_0 * ε_r * A * (V^2 / h^2) = [N] F:
eletrostatic force ε_0: permitivity ε_r: relative permitivity A: area V:
voltage h: plate distance
gauge factor: η = ΔR / ε * R η: gauge factor ΔR: change in resistance
R: resistivity ε: strain: ε = (P * L / µ)^2/3 ε: strain P: pressure
L: length of cavity µ: graphene shear modulus (150 N/m)
ΔR / R = η (P * L / µ)^2/3
circuits
types
ring oscilator series of at least 3 inverters (inverter: nmos+pmos)
final output of the last is inertial input in the first final
output is inverted of the inertial input channel takes some time to
charge oscillation starts spontaneously increase of frequency:
inverter 1 nmos and 1 pmos together input voltage is inverted
1. increase applied voltage 2. smaller number of inverters
units
electrical
E field: N / C = V / m = kg * m / s^3 * A
Volts: V = W / A = m^2 * kg / s^3 * A
Farad: F = C / V = s^4 * A^2 / m^2 * kg
Ohm: Ω = V / A = m^2 * kg / s^3 * A^2
Coulomb: C = A * s
mechanical
Pascal: Pa = N / m^2 = kg / m * s^2
newton: N = m * kg / s^2
Watt: W = J / s = m^2 * kg / s^3
Joule: J = N * m = m^2 * kg / s^2 = eV * C
optical
wavenumber: k = 2 * π / λ = [1 / m] k: wavenumber λ: wavelength
wavelength: λ = 1.24 / h * ν = [µm] λ: wavelength hν: energy in eV
constants
mechanical
speed of light: c = 2.9981e8 m/s
atomic mass unit: u = 1.66e 27 kg
boltzmann's constant: k = 1.38e 23 J/K = 8.62e 5 eV/K
electron rest mass: m_0 = 9.11e 31 kg m_o c^2 = 5.11e5 eV
proton rest mass: m_p = 1.67e 27 kg m_p c = 9.38e8 eV
neutron rest mass: m_n = 1.67e 27 kg m_n c^2 = 9.38e8 eV
planck's constant: h = 6.63e 34 Js = 4.41e 15 eVs ћ = 1.05e 34
Js = 6.58e 16 eVs
avogadro's number: N_A = 6.02e23 molecules/mole
energy at room temperature: kT = 0.0259 eV = 4.11e 21 J = 9.83e 22
cal = 4.114 pN * nm
electrical
elementary charge: q = 1.602e 19 C
permittivity: ε_0 = 8.85e 12 F/m = 8.85e 15 F/cm
graphene
transfer
wet etch method
dry transfer with spacer substrate
copper on sio2 pattern graphene underetch copper leave graphene
on sio2
cleaning
dry cleaning with active graphite
polymer scaffolds
thermal annealing at 300°C for 3 hours under UHV
metal cleaning, crackless, wrinkleless
acetic acid and methanol
residue reduction
exfoliation
on SiC
liquid phase exfoliation
polymer nanoparticles assisted exfoliation
nano imprint
glue on substrate
epoxy
copper evaporation
carbon atom diffusion through copper
large area patterning transfer with holographic lithography
polymer assisted
polymer free transfer with cellulose acetate
dry PI polymer transfer (copper reuse)
roll to roll transfer method
pet assisted transfer method
soak and peel method
dry pdms stamp transfer
pdms stamp with o2 plasma before stamp on cu foil: 30W, 15s O2
plasma enhance adhesion
pdms transfer without pmma pdms remove by methylene chloride
large area suspended graphene transfer with pdms
low temperature, metal assisted
dry thermal release tape
vacuum assisted transfer remove of adsorbants use standard
wet transfer
pmma and ab glue
spin coater assisted transfer to polymer substrate
resiude fre pmma remove with ar+ ion beam
by oxidation assited water intercalation
etch free transfer
transfer free suspended graphene
electrochemical transfer method
bubble method
platinum substrate
agarose gel method
pdms assisted without pores
electro exfoliating grapene from graphite
bubble transfer with polymer support with inclosed air bubble
polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film
dry transfer
dry transfer with bN
dry transfer with PMMA on hBN
selective dry transfer
dry electrostatic method
high temperature, pressure and voltage transfer with cu celectrodes
nickel and cu
water mediated and instataneous transfer
support free transfer with SAM modified substrate
wetting assisted transfer
polymer free transfer
graphene growth on patterned mo and removal of ma with sulfuric
acid
with Ti as transfer layer removed with hf
using hexane
properties
mechanical
intrinsic strength: prestine graphene 90 121 GPa (30 N/m)
defective graphene ~50 GPa (18 N/m)
policrystalline
young's modulus: prestine and cvd graphene 1 TPa
Stretchability: 20%
impermeability to everything but protons
strain
uniaxual strain deformation
uniaxial strain in bilayer graphene unisotropic phonon softening
Thickness: 0.34 nm
defect introduction through Argon irradiation
crack propagation
self healing of cracks
fracture of graphene (review)
wet adhesion
adhesion
strong adhesion to sio2
thickness dependent adhesion force to surface roughness
weak adhesion on pdms > low surface energy
good adhesion with additional layer of su 8
temperature dependent adhesion on a trench
suspended
10nm thick graphene: spring constant: 1 5 N/m
critical temp and radus for buckling
topography
small scale pull in instability and vibration
gauge factor
exfoliated graphene
graphene beam: 1.9
on sio2: 150
cvd graphene
gauge factor: 2
nano crystalline graphene: 300
electrical
high electron mobility
on bulk
CVD graphene with boron nitride underlying: 37000 cm2/Vs
SiC decomposition: 16000 cm2/Vs
CVD graphene: 16000 cm2/Vs
suspended prestine at room temperature: 230000 cm2/Vs
suspended low temperature: order of 1000000 cm2/Vs
mobility extraction
TLM: transfer length method
DTM: direct transconductance method
FTM: fitting method constant mobility model
CVD graphene on hBN: 350000 cm^2/Vs
CVD graphene
on sio2: 4050 cm2 /V s
on sio2: 1200 2400 cm2/Vs
suspended: 15000 cm2/Vs
exfoliated
on sio2: 15000 cm2/vs
on h BN: 275000 cm2/VS (T=4K); 120000 cm2/VS at RT
screening
on hBN
electrical field
electrostatic
sheet resistance: 500 Ohm/square (wet transfer)
multilayer
depending on transfer
band structure
bandgap
hydrogen adsorption: 0.73 eV
bilayer graphene: 0.25 eV
nanoribbon band gap tunable: smaller gap = higher band gap
(20nm = ~ 100meV)
breakdown current density
nanoribbons: width 16nm: 10^8 A/cm^2
effect of humidity on electrical properties
effect of interlayer coupling on electrical properties
surface electrical properties
optical
transparency: mono layer 97.7%
multilayer
fine structure constant
absorption: 300 2500 nm peak at 270 nm
photoresponse
raman
graphene 514nm and 633 nm laser
single layer spectrum
2D peak: defect peak ~1350 cm^ 1
G peak (4x 2D peak): ~1580 cm^ 1
multilayer spectrum
5+ layer not distinguishable from graphite
absorption: 2.3%
piezoresistivity
positive piezoconductive
chemical
hexagonal honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms in sp2 hybridization
remaining pz forms C C pi bond
two atom A and B unit cell
superhydropobic graphene
superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic
intersurface interaction
thermal
exfoliated graphene
suspended heat conductivity: 5150 W/mK
thermal conductvity of suspended graphene with defect graphene
heat transport
multilayer
mono layer
thermal expansion coefficient: 7 × 10−6 K−1
CVD graphene
suspended heat conductivity: 5150 W/mK
applications
mems/nems
membrane
pressure sensor
graphene foam
typical pressure sensitivity: 20kPa/sqrt(Hz)
two layer graphene
optical fibre pressure sensing
squeeze film pressure sensor
capacitive pressure sensor
microdrums on perforated large area membrane high sensitivity
snap transition of pressurized blisters
switch
rf switch
accelerometer
nanoribbon resonator
loudspeaker
graphene printed micro speaker
resonator
detection
drum resonator
terahertz detector
simulation
tuneable strain
piezoresistive transducer
graphene sheets
memory device
detection
with local gate control
electricity generation
TMD growth on suspended graphene
suspended graphene
suspended nanoribbons
suspended cvd graphene
crumpling effect
graphene/multi wall carbon nanotubes optoelectronic properties
membrane fabrication with tunable structures
strain sensor
electrostatic actuated graphene flake
nanocrystalline graphene
microphone
multilayer condensor microphone
microphone+ electrostatic acostic radio 20Hz 0.5MHz
fabrication
e beam induced etching
bio and medicin
biosensor
dna analysis
bio analysis
free standing graphene paper as disposable non enzymatic
electrochemical sensor
characterization
transmission electron microscope
free standing graphene nanoribbon devies
thermal
Size Dependence of Thermal Conductivity
heat transport in defect engineered graphene
properties
structure
mass transport mechanism
interaction between energetic ions and freestanding graphene
towards practical 2d perforating
visualization of the movement of nanodrums
water desalination using nanoporous graphene
piezoelectric strain gauge
force sensor
nano bots
mechanical control of graphene on pyramidal structures
mos2 chemical vapor sensor (comparison with graphene devices)
hall sensor
quantum hall effect
transparent micro heater
tactile sensing with array of graphene woven nanofabrics
chemical sensor
gas sensor
self activated transparent gas sensor
NO2 sensor
defect engineered graphene
humidity
effect on humidity on electrical properties
h2 sensor
NH3
defect engineered graphene
enhanced performance with nanoporous substrate
control of nitrogen vacancy defect emission
bio
bioanalytical applications
biosensor
intracellular glucose measurement
bio inspired strain sensors
biomedical applications
flexible
sensors
pressure sensor
pressure sensor
pressure sensor with si3n4 membare and graphene strain elements
biomedical pressure sensor
electronical skin high speed rapid response criss cross graphene
pattern
strain sensor for human motion monitoring
micromechanics
measurement of nanocrystalline graphnee
electronics
transistor
bilayer transistor
nanoribbon transistor
rf transistor
gbt (tunneling transistor)
Graphene field effect device (GFET)
gigahertz
SiC
measurement
characterisation
noise
structural
electrical
terahetz detector
flexible
on 2d paper matrix
large scale integration
suspended
diode
circuits
flexible
solar cells
graphene molecules
supercapacitor
flexible
3d graphene based for application in supercapacitors
flexible electronics
tunable filed effect properties low k dielectric
folding
liquid evaporation driven
composite materials
graphene polymer Transparent, Flexible, and Conducting Films
optics
optoelectonics
photodetector
spectral sensitivity of graphene/si heterojunction
broadband high photoresponse
nanocrystalline graphene
selectively enhanced photocurrent on twisted bilayer
photonics
light emission from graphene
nanocrystalline graphene
macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene
heterostructures
graphene/hBN
electric field and strain tunable mos2/h bn/graphene vertical
heterostructure
graphene based heterostructure
superhydrphobic graphene
high temperature thin film devices
filtration and desalination of water
sensing
contacts
flexible
stability of few layer graphene doped with gold chloride
contacting
as electrode for mos2
interconnects
contact resistance
bottom graphene electrode
review
passivation
mulitlayer graphene
layer by layer stacking
stacking on copper without removing top pmma
stacking and removing pmma on substrate layer by layer
problem: increasing roughness
bernal stacked
graphene oxid (GO)
properties
mechanical
young's modulus: 0.15 + 0.03 TPa
strain dependent
intrinsic strength: 4.4 + 0.6 GPa (3.1 + 0.4 N/m)
thickness: 0.7 nm
application
membrane
oil and water separation
graphene ink
properties
improve by laser annealing
analytics
15 1