Mental Map Definition Psychology

Mental-Map-Definition-Psychology
Biology
Nervous System
Peripheral
Autonomicselfregulated internal organs
and glands
Sympathetic Nervous System simulates
fightorflight response, maintains
homeostasis
Somatic
Sensory input
Motor Outputskeletal muscles
Central (brain and spinal cord)
The Brain
Association Areas
Frontal lobepersonality, emotion and
thinking
Motivation
Drive-Reducation Theoryphysiological
need creates an aroused tension state that
motivates an organism to satisfy a need
Yerkes Podson/Optimum Arousal
TheoryPerformance increases with arousal
only up to a point, beyond which
performance decreases
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Basic Needs
Physiological Needsfood, water, sleep and
warmth
Safety needssecurity and stability
Psychological Needs
Belongingness and love
needsrelationships and friends
Selffulfillment Needs
Selfactualizationachieving potential
Emotionbodily arousal, expressive
behavior, and conscious experience
Feedback effectoccurs when expressions
amplify our emotions cultivating muscles
associated with specific states
James Lange Theoryarousal before
emotion
CannonBard Theory Arousal and emotion
are simultaneous
SchaterSinger (Twofactor) Theoryarousal
and label=emotion
General arousalintereting arousal
depending on context and spill
over effect
Conscious cognitive level
Emotional Catharsispurification of
emotions, renewal and restoration of
emotion
Emotion focused coping avoiding stressor
Learned helplessnessoccurs when people
feel helpless and avoid negative situations
Problem focused copingchanging
interaction with stressor
External locus of controlchance ors outside
forces beyond our personal control
determine our fate
Internal locus of controlwe control our own
fate
Personality
Type Ahardworking, impatient, verbally
aggressive, and anger prone
Type B easy going and relaxed
Psychodynamic Personality Perspective
Id (unconscious energy)instant gratification
Superego (idealized unconscious)social
standard and expectation
Falseconsensus effectcognitive bias in
which people tend to overestimate the
extent to which their opinions, beliefs,
preferences, values, and habits are
typical of others
Ego (Reality)what is actually presented on
the outside
Big Five Factor Theory
Extraversionexcitability, sociability,
talkativeness, assertiveness, and emotional
expressivness
Agreeablenesstrust, altruism, kindness,
affection, and other prosocial behavior
Conscientiousness thoughtfulness, impulse
control, goaldirected behaviors
Neuroticismsadness,moodiness, and
emotional instability
Opennessimagination and insight,
creativity, sense of adventure, and abstract
thinking
Temporalmemory and language
Hypothalamusmaitnenance functions and
emotion
Hippocampusemotion, memory, and
autonomic NS
Memory
1. Sensory Memory6th sense
2. Attentionselective, divided, sustained
3. Shorttermconcious processing, active
4. Encoding
Automaticimplicit
Effortfulexplict
5. Longterm memoryorganize and store,
permanent
6. Retrieval
Cues
Primingactivation of particular associations
in memory
Contextdependent
Moodcongruentrecalling consistent with
one's current good or bad mood
Failure in retrievalinterference or motivated
forgetting
7. Workingconcious processing and short
Amygdalalinked to emotion
Dreams
REM sleeprapid eye movements
Alpha wavesslow brain waves relatively
relaxed, awake
Hallucinationssensory experiences occur
without sensory stimulus
Delta waveslarge slow waves, deep sleep
Latentunderlying symbols &
Manifestleteral subject matter
Occipitalvision
Consciousnessawarness of self and
environment
Selective attentionfocusing on particular
stimulus
Pop out phenomenonunique target easily
detected
Dual processingprincipal info
simultaneously processed on separate
conscious and unconscious tasks
Blindsightcondition in which a person can
respond to a visual stimulus with out
consciously experiencing it
Sleep
Benefits
Protects
Recooperates
Rebuilds fading memories
Creative Thinking
Supports growth
Parietalperception
Perceptual Setmental disposition to
perceive on thing and not another
Context effectsgiven stimulus that triggers
radically different perceptions
Motor cortexmovement
Sensory Cortexsensations
Bottomup=sensory receptors
Topdown=creates meaning from sensory
input
Plasticitybrain's ability to change especially
during childhood from damage or
experience
Big Influences in Psych
Wundt "Father of Psychology"
volunteerism and introspection
Watson "Little Albertbehaviorism
MaslowHierarchy of Needs
Development
Infancy
Social/emotionalbiological attachment to
parents through body contact and
imprinting
Baumrind's 4 parenting styles
1. Authoritativemutual trust and respect,
twoway communication
Secure attachment
2. Authoritariancontrol, different
perspectives not acceptable, oneway
communication
3. Permissiveindulgence and entitlement,
little control
4. Neglectfulnonexistment relationship, no
communication
Cognitiveschemas, assimilation and
accommodation
Adolescence
Social/emotionalforming identity vs. role
confusion
Erickson's Stages of Psychosocial
Development
Infancy (01)trust v. mistrust
Toddlerhood (13)autonomy v. shame and
doubt
Preschool (36)initiative v. guilt
Elementary school (6puberty)competence
v. inferiority
Adolescence (teens20s)identity v. role
confusion
Young Adulthood (20searly 40s)intimacy v.
isolation
Relational Agressionact of aggression
intended to harm a person's reputation or
relationship
Primary sex characteristics body structures
for reproduction
Secondary sex
characteristicsnonreproductive sexual traits
Sexual Response Cycle
1. Excitement genitals enlarge with blood
2. Plateau excitement peaks as breathing,
pulse, and BP rise
3. Orgasmmuscle contractions appear all
over body are accompanied by further rise
in breathing, pulse, and BP
4. Resolutionbody gradually returns to its
unaroused state as the genital blood vessels
release their accumulated blood (refactory
period)
Middle Adulthood (40s60s)generativity v.
stagnation
Late Adulthood (late 60sdeath)integrity v.
despair
Cognitivereasoning power, morality
Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory
Preconventional (age 9 and
under)selfinterest obeys rules to avoid
punishment
Conventional (early adolescence)upholds
laws and rules to gain social approval and
order
Postconventional (adolescence and
above)actions reflect belief in basic rights
and selfdefined ethical principles
Formal Operations: 1)physical development
2)cognitive development 3)social
development 4)emerging adulthood
Adulthood
Generativityconcern for people besides self
& family
Abormal Psychology
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)screens for personality and
psychosocial disorders in adults
3 Ds of Abnormal Psych
1. Devianceoutside of social norms and
expectations
2. Distressdivorce from reality
3. Disfunctiondisrupts flow of normal social
situations
Medical Model
Biological: evolution, individual genes, brain
structures and chemistry
Socialcultural: roles, expectations,
definitions of normality of disorder
Psychological: stress, trauma, learned
helplessness, moodrelated perception and
memories
Transferenceinnappropriate repetition in
the present of a relationship that was
important in a person's childhood
Ruminationtendency to repetitively think
about the causes, situational factors, and
consequences of one's negative emotional
experience
Labeling
Predicts course of the disorder
Suggests appropriate treatment
Prompts search into a disorder's cause
Types of Disorders
Learning
ADHDextrmem in attention and/or
hyperactivity and impulsivity
Anxiety
Panic disordersudden episodes of intense
dread
Phobiasperson is intensely and irrational
afraid of a specific object, activity or
situation
Agoraphobiafear of places and situations
that might cause panic, helplessness or
embarrassment
PTSDhaunting memories, nightmares,
social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness
of feeling and/or insomnia that lingers for 4
weeks after a dramatic experience
Depressive/Personality
Major depressive disorderexperiences in
absence of drugs or another medical
condition, 2+ weeks with symptoms of at
least 1 of 2 : 1) depressive mood 2) loss of
interest of pleasure
Women's risk of depressive disorder is 2xs
higher than men's
BiPolaralternates between the
hopelessness and lethargy of depression
and overexcited state of mania
Schizophrenia and other
Antisocial personality disorderperson has a
longterm pattern of manipulating,
exploiting, or violating the rights of others
Schizophreniadelusions, hallucinations,
disorganized speech, and/or
inappropriate emotional expression
Hallucinations experience involving
apparent perception of something not
present
Delusionsidiosyncratic belief or impression
that is firmly maintained despite being
contradicted by what is generally accepted
as reality or rational argument, typically a
symptom of mental disorder
Treatment
Counter Conditioningconditioning a
motivated behavior or response to a
stimulus into a wanted behavior or response
by the association of positive actions with
stimulus
Biopsychosocial therapypatient and
provider's perspective
Antidepressentsdrugs used to treat major
depressive disorder
Antipsychoticsmajor tranquilizers used to
treat schizophrenia and bipolar
Lithiumsodium treatment used to treat the
manic episodes of bipolar disorder
Electrocompulsive (ECT) manipulates brain
through shock waves
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