Mind Map Gallery AP Psychology
The Advanced Placement Psychology (AP Psychology, AP Psych, or APPSY) course and corresponding exam are part of College Board's Advanced Placement Program.Edited at 2020-10-10 07:12:12
Explicit Memories-> conscious memories
Implicit Memories-> unintentional Memories
Three-Box/ Information-Processing Model
(sensory->Short-term) We encode what we are attending to or what is important to us.
Short-term/ Working memory
Levels of Processing Model
Primacy Effect-> Beginning of a list
Recency Effect-> End of a list
Serial Position Effect
Rigidity/ Mental Set
The tendency to fall into established thought patterns.
The inability to see a new use for an object.
We tend to look for evidence that continue our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true.
The way a problem is presented.
Element of Language
Smallest unit of sound used in language.
Smallest unit of meaningful sound
Cat & Puzzle Box
Law of effect-> pleasant/unpleasant consequences
Punishment Vs. Reinforcement
Learning that becomes obvious only once a reinforcement is given for demonstrating it.
Chimpanzees and Bananas
Psychoanalytic/ Freudian Theory
Blocking thoughts out from conscious awareness.
Not accepting the ego-threatening truth.
Redirecting one's feeling toward another person or object.
Believing that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself.
Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels.
Returning to an earlier, comforting form of behavior.
Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable occurrence.
Undertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic.
Channeling one's frustration toward a different goal.
Healthy Defense Mechanisms
A statistical technique.Allows researchers to use correlations between traits in order to see which traits cluster together as factors.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Axis I--Clinical Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorders
Axis II--Personality and Developmental Disorders
Axis III--Medical Conditions
Axis IV--Psychosocial Conditions
Axis V--Global Assessment of Functioning
(GAF): Overall Level of Functioning. score 1~100, the higher the better.
Intense unwarranted fear of a situation or object.
A fear of open, public spaces.
A fear of a situation in which one could embarrass oneself in public.
(GAD) Generalized Anxiety Disorders
Constant, low-level anxiety.
Acute episodes of intense anxiety without any apparent provocation.
(OCD) Obsessive-compulsive disorders
Persistent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Anxiety caused by memories of extremely troubling event.
Cause of Anxiety Disorders
Unresolved, unconscious conflicts.
Anxiety disorders are learned.
Disorders result from dysfunctional ways of thinking. Anxiety disorder: unhealthy and irrational way of thinking and/ or specific irrational thoughts.
Occurs when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom, i.e., experiences a physical problem in the absence of any physical cause.
Frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. Believe that minor problems are indicative of severe physical illness.
People who have conversion disorder will report the existence of a severe physical problem such as paralysis or blindness, and they will, in fact, be unable to move their arm or see.
Cause of Somatoform Disorders
Merely outward manifestations of unresolved unconscious conflicts.
Reinforced for their behavior.
Disruption in conscious processes
A person cannot remember things and no physiological basis for the disruption in memory can be identified.
Amnesia involves unplanned travel.
(DID) Dissociative Identity Disorders
Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, is when a person has several personalities rather than one integrated personality.
Cause of Dissociative Disorders
An extremely traumatic event has been so thoroughly repressed that a split in consciousness results.
People who have experienced trauma simply find not thinking about it to be rewarding, thus producing amnesia or, in extreme cases, DID.
Mood/ Affective Disorders
Experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions.
Unipolar/ Major Depression Disorder
People who are clinically depressed remain unhappy for more than two weeks in the absence of a clear reason. Losing appetite, fatigue, change in sleeping patterns, lack of interest in normally enjoyable activities, and feelings of worthlessness.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Experienced only during certain time of the year. Treated with light therapy.
Dipolar/ Manic Depression
Involves both depressed and manic episodes. Involves feelings of high energy.
Less intenseA period of depressed mood lasting at least two years.
Cause of Mood Disorder
Depression is the product of anger directed inward, loss during the early psychosexual stages, or an overly punitive superego.
Mood disorders bring some kind of reinforcement (e.g., attention or sympathy).
Aaron Beck (Cognitive Triad)
Depression results from unreasonable negative ideas that people have about themselves, their world, and their futures.
Attributions that people make about their experiences. (Attribution is an explanation of cause).
Martin Seligman (Learned Helpless)
Dog Electric Shock Experiment Learned helplessness is when one's prior experience have caused that person to view himself or herself as unable to control aspects of the future that are controllable. Results in passivity and depression
Low level of serotonin
Too Much Acetylcholine receptors
Low levels of norepinephrine
Disordered, distorted thinking often demonstrated through delusions and/ or hallucinations.
Beliefs that have no basis in reality.
Perceptions in the absence of any sensory stimulations.
Odd Uses of Language
Delusions of Persecution
Exhibit disordered thinking but no other symptoms
Cause of Schizophrenic Disorders
Biological (Dopamine Hypothesis)
High level of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia.
Side effect (Tardive Dyskinesia)
Parkinson's disease (Opposite of Schizophrenia)
Need dopamine level to get higher. Parkinson's disease's symptom is similar to tardive dyskinesia.
Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people's ability to function.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Sensation and Perception
Protective CoveringFocus the light
Shutter of camera Iris controls cornea.
accommodation: focus light
In the eye
Robs ->black and white
Translation of incoming stimuli into neural signals.
The process of understanding and interpreting sensations.
The smallest amount of stimulus we can detect.
Stimuli below our absolute threshold.
Difference Threshold/ just-noticeable threshold
The smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change
The change needed is proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus. The more intense the stimulus, the more it will need to change before we notice a difference.
Signal Detection Theory
Investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world.
We think we perceive a stimulus that is not there.
Not perceiving a stimulus that is present.
Using background knowledge to fill in gaps in what you perceive.
Mental representations of how we expect the world to be.
A Predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way.
Using only the features of the object itself to build a complete perception.
Our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes.
Relative Size Cue
Binocular/ Retinal Disparity
State of Consciousness
Speed up body processes
Slow down body system
Act as agonists for endorphins ) and thus are powerful painkillers and mood elevators.
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic theorists view the cause of disorders as unconscious conflicts. As a result, their focus is on identifying the underlying cause of the problems.
Unconditioned positive regard
Blanket acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does.
Replace the feelings of anxiety with relaxation
An unpleasant conditional response is replaced with a pleasant one.
Challenging negative beliefs
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Rational emotive behavior therapy
Expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of clients.
Challenging illogical ways of thinking
assigning behavioral homework
Rules about how group members should act.
The Phenomenon when individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when acting alone.
Tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group members would make individually.
The tendency for some groups to make bad decisions. group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group.
Loss of self-restraint occurs when group members feel anonymous and aroused.
Zimbardo's prison experiment
Over 60% obeyed
Explain how people determine the causes of what they observe.
Dispositional/ Person Attribution
Determine Person Vs. Situation
Overestimate the importance of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
X Collectivist Cultures
Overestimate the number of people who agree with them.
Tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones.
The bias toward thinking that bad things happen to bad people. Belief in "misfortunes befall people who deserve them". Tendency to blame victims.
Examine types of waves.
(CAT/ CT) Computerized Axial Tomography
Sophisticated X-ray. Structure of brain
(MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Uses magnetic field to measure the density and location of brain material.
(PET) Position Emission Tomography
Activities and Chemicals of the brain.
(fMRI) Functional MRI
Blood flow, Brain structure, Brain activities