Mind Map Gallery Biology Culminating Task
A complete mind map about Biology Culminating Task.Edited at 2021-01-29 16:48:26
Biology Culminating Task
Unit 1: Diversity of Living Things
Chapter 1: Classifying Life's Diversity
- a group of organisms that can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.
- separates bacteria and archaea, a biological (or chemical) process that.
Bacteria (Can survive extreme environments)
- the branch of biology that deals with the structure or form of organisms.
- the evolutionary history of a species.
- the branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species based on natural features.
- the system of giving a two-word Latin name to each species—the first part is the genus and the second part is the species.
Genus (plural genera)
a taxonomic group of a closely related species.
- the grouping of organisms based on a set of criteria that helps to organize and indicate evolutionary relationships.
- the method of classifying organisms in which species are arranged in categories from most general to most specific.
All species are classified by being placed in eight nested ranks. The broadest category is the domain, continuing to narrow to the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and finally species, which is the narrowest category.
- a level in a classification scheme, such as phylum or order.
Taxon (plural taxa)
- a named group of organisms such as phylum Chordata or order Rodentia.
Chapter 2: Diversity: Simple to Complex
- an organism (or organisms) from which other groups of organisms are descended.
- the branch of biology that deals with structure and form, including internal systems.
- the branch of biology dealing with the physical and chemical functions of organisms, including internal processes.
- a branching diagram used to show the evolutionary relationships among species.
- a type of biological diversity that is exhibited in the variety of structural forms in living things, from internal cell structure to body morphology.
- a smaller, simple type of cell that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus.
- a larger, complex type of cell that does have a membrane-bound nucleus.
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is more closely related to a Red deer (Cervus elaphus) than it is to an Oryx (Oryx gazella).
Chapter 3: Multicellular Diversity
- an identification tool consisting of a series of two-part choices that lead the user to correct identification, the word key is used as a solution, and a dichotomy is a two-pronged fork.
- An organism that captures energy from sunlight (or sometimes non-living substances) to produce its own energy-yielding food.
- an organism that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy from consuming other organisms.
- the variety and abundance of species in a given area.
- the variety of heritable characteristics (genes) in a population of interbreeding individuals.
- The ability of an ecosystem to remain functional and stable in the presence of disturbances to its parts.
• Each named rank is known as a taxon.• Taxonomists rely on morphological, physiological, and DNA evidence to identify and classify species.
Virus - a structure that contains strands of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protective protein coat; it cannot live independently outside of cells.
Capsid - the outer protein layer that surrounds the genetic material of a virus.
Lytic cycle - the replication process in viruses in which the virus’s genetic material uses the copying machinery of the host cell to make new viruses.
Replication - the fundamental process of all cells, in which the genetic material is copied before the cell reproduces.
Lysogenic cycle - the replication process in viruses, in which the viral DNA enters the host cell’s chromosome; it may remain dormant and later activate and instruct the host cell to produce more viruses.
Prion - an infectious particle that causes damage to nerve cells in the brain, and that appears to consist mostly or entirely of a single protein.
Bacterium (plural bacteria) - an individual prokaryotic cell or a single species that is in the domain.
Bacteria archaeon (plural archaea) - an individual prokaryotic cell or a single species that is in the domain.
Archaea coccus (plural cocci) - a micro-organism whose overall morphology is spherical or nearly so.
Bacillus (plural bacilli) - a micro-organism whose overall morphology is rod-shaped.
Extremophile - an organism that lives in habitats characterized by extreme conditions.Mesophile - an organism that lives in habitats characterized by moderate conditions
Binary Fission - the asexual form of reproduction used by most prokaryotes (and some eukaryotic organelles), in which a cell divides into two genetically identical cells (or organelles).
Protist - a eukaryotic organism, usually unicellular, that is not a fungus, plant, or animal.
Unit 2: Genetic Processes
Chapter 4: Cell Division & Reproduction
Plant - a multicellular photosynthetic eukaryote with cellulose-based cell walls.Embryo - an organism’s early pre-birth stage of development.Sporic reproduction - sexual reproduction that alternates between a gamete-making individual and a sporemaking individual.Gametophyte - the haploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces gametes by mitosis.Sporophyte - the diploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces spores by meiosis.Bryophyte - a small, non-vascular land plant; the formal name Bryophyta is reserved for the mosses, one group of bryophytes.Gymnosperm - a vascular plant with non-enclosed seeds.Angiosperm - a vascular plant with seeds enclosed in protective tissue.Cone - a gymnosperm structure that contains male or female reproductive parts.Flower - a collection of structures in angiosperms used for sexual reproduction.Fruit - a mature ovary of a flower that protects and disperses dormant seeds.
Monocot - a major cluster of flowering plants that have one cotyledon.Dicot - a major cluster of flowering plants that have two cotyledons.Fungus (plural fungi) - a stationary, heterotrophic eukaryotic organism whose cell walls contain chitin.Hypha (plural hyphae) - a multicellular, threadlike filament that makes up the basic structural unit of a fungus.Mycelium (plural mycelia) a complex, net-like mass made of branching hyphae.Fruiting body - the spore-producing reproductive structure in fungi. Zygospore - a diploid structure that develops after two haploid hyphae of opposite types combine and fuse their nuclei; this structure is characteristic of zygospore fungi that reproduce sexually during unfavourable conditions.Ascus (plural asci) - a small finger-like structure in which sac fungi develop spores.Basidium (plural basidia) a club-shaped hypha found in members of the Basidiomycotes; they bear spores called basidiospores.
genetics - the study of heredity and variation of living organisms and how genetic information is passed from one generation to the next somatic cell - a plant or animal cell that forms the body of the organism; excludes reproductive cellschromosome - a structure in the nucleus that contains DNA sister chromatid - one of two chromosomes that are genetically identical and held together at the centromere centromere - the region where two sister chromatids are held together in a chromosomespindle fibre - a microtubule structure that facilitates the movement of chromosomes within a cell centrosome a structure that helps to form the spindle fibregenome - the complete DNA sequence of an organismasexual reproduction - that requires only one parent and produces genetically identical offspring sexual reproduction - that requires two parents and produces genetically distinct offspring gamete - a male or female reproductive cell zygote - a cell formed by the fusion of two gametesfertilization in humans, the joining of male and female haploid gametes haploid - a cell that contains half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell diploid - a cell that contains pairs of homologous chromosomes meiosis - the cellular process that produces cells containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell synapsis - the aligning of homologous chromosomes during prophase I in meiosis
Chapter 5: Patterns of Inheritance
sex chromosome - an X or Y chromosome, which determines the genetic sex of an organism autosome a chromosome that is not involved in determining the sex of an organismhomologous chromosome - a chromosome that contains the same sequence of genes as another chromosomegene - a part of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait and is passed on to offspring; it has a specific DNA sequence allele - a different form of the same gene karyotype - a photograph of pairs of homologous chromosomes in a cellspermatogenesis - the process of producing male gametes (sperm) in mammalsoogenesis - the process of producing female gametes (eggs) in mammalscrossing over - the exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomesnon-disjunction - the failure of homologous chromosome pairs or sister chromatids to separate during meiosismonosomy - the loss of a chromosome as a result of nondisjunction trisomy - the gain of an extra chromosome as a result of nondisjunctionselective breeding - the process of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits artificial insemination - the process by which sperm are collected and concentrated before being introduced into the female’s reproductive system embryos transfer - the process by which an egg that has been fertilized artificially is transferred into a recipient female’s uterus.in vitro fertilization - the technique used to fertilize egg cells outside the female’s bodycloning - a process that produces identical copies of genes, cells, or organisms gene cloning - the use of DNA manipulation techniques to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA recombinant DNA - a molecule of DNA that includes genetic material from different sourcesstem cell - an undifferentiated cell that can develop and become specialized into different cell types of the bodytherapeutic cloning - the process of replacing an egg cell’s nucleus with the nucleus from a somatic donor cell to produce a cell line of genetically identical cells reproductive cloning - the process of producing genetically identical organisms
Term for an organism's physical appearance, which is dictated by its combination of alleles (Phenotype).Which statement is FALSE regarding prophase I of meiosis?(Chromosomes uncoil into chromatin).Pattern of dominance where heterozygotes display an intermediate phenotype. (Incomplete dominance)The first generation of offspring which results from the parental cross are called F1.This is the term for heritable factors in DNA that control physical traits GENESPattern of dominance where heterozygotes display the traits for BOTH alleles separately. CodominanceTraits which are produced by the interaction of several genes Polygenic traitsThis is a type of cell division that makes 2 identical copies of the parent cell MitosisWhat stage comes before mitosis? S PhaseThis is the result of meiosis 4 Haploid cells
Chapter 6: Complex Pattern of Inheritance
incomplete dominance - a condition in which neither allele for a gene completely conceals the presence of the other; it results in intermediate expression of a trait
codominance - the condition in which both alleles for a trait are equally expressed in a heterozygote; both alleles are dominant.
heterozygous advantage - a survival benefit for individuals who inherit two different alleles for the same trait
continuous variation - a range of variation in one trait resulting from the activity of many genes
linked genes genes - that are on the same chromosome and that tend to be inherited together
SQUARE (MALE) AND CIRCLE (FEMALE), WITH SHADE INHERITED, NO SHADE NOT INHERITED.
sex-linked trait - a trait controlled by genes on the X or the Y chromosome
bioinformatics - a field of study that deals with using computer technology to create and analyze large databases of information
genomics - the study of genomes and the complex interactions of genes that result in phenotypes
genetic - profile the complete genotype of an individual, including various mutations
Unit 3: Evolution
Chapter 7: Introducing Evolution
Chapter 8: Theory of Evolution
Chapter 9: Evolution & Speciation
Unit 4: Animal System
DISGESTIVE SYSTEM (DOUBLE CLICK TO ZOOM)
peptic ulcer - a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, most commonly caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
inflammatory bowel disease - the general name for a group of diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines
Crohn’s disease - a form of inflammatory disease that can affect any part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the anus
ulcerative colitis - a form of inflammatory disease that attacks the colon
hepatitis A, B & C- inflammation of the liver, most commonly caused by a virus
cirrhosis - the irreversible replacement of healthy liver tissue with non-functioning scar tissue; most commonly caused by excessive alcohol intake or hepatitis
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (DOUBLE CLICK TO ZOOM)
tonsillitis - an infection of the tonsils caused by a virus or by bacteria
laryngitis - an inflammation of the larynx that can cause the voice to become raspy or hoarse
pneumonia - a disease that causes inflammation in one or both lungs; it is usually caused by a viral infection or a bacterial infection
bronchitis - a respiratory disease that causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi; it is classified as either acute (due to infection) or chronic (due to an irritant)
asthma - a lung disease that causes chronic inflammation of the lungs and overproduction of mucus in the lungs
emphysema - a chronic respiratory disease that affects the ability of the lungs to expel air
cystic fibrosis - a genetic disease that causes a thick build-up of mucus in the lungs, resulting in infection, inflammation, and damage to the lung tissues
carcinoma - a tumour made up of rapidly multiplying cells
metastasis - the spread of cancerous cells from their original site to other parts of the body
computed axial tomography - a specialized X ray technique for imaging organs and other tissues in the body; also known as a CAT or CT scan
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (DOUBLE CLICK TO ZOOM)
atrioventricular (AV) node - the specialized heart cells near the junction of the atria and ventricles that cause the ventricles to contract
sinoatrial (SA) node - the modified heart cells in the right atrium that spontaneously generate the rhythmic signals that cause the atria to contract
ElectroCardioGram (ECG) - a record of the electrical impulses generated by a beating heart
arteriosclerosis - general term for several conditions in which the walls of arteries thicken and lose their elasticity
angioplasty - a surgical procedure used to open up a clogged artery
coronary bypass - surgical procedure in which blood flows rerouted around blocked arteries
Aneurysm - a bulge in an artery or heart chamber caused by a weakened area of the heart muscle or arterial wall
By: Bernard Cruz