Biology Culminating Task

Biology Culminating Task
Unit 1: Diversity of Living Things
Unit 3: Evolution
By: Bernard Cruz
Unit 4: Animal System
Unit 2: Genetic Processes
Chapter 7: Introducing Evolution
Chapter 8: Theory of Evolution
Chapter 9: Evolution & Speciation
Chapter 1: Classifying Life's Diversity
Chapter 4: Cell Division & Reproduction
Chapter 5: Patterns of Inheritance
Chapter 6: Complex Pattern of Inheritance
Chapter 2: Diversity: Simple to Complex
Chapter 3: Multicellular Diversity
Plant - a multicellular photosynthetic eukaryote with cellulose-based cell walls.
Embryo - an organism’s early pre-birth stage of development.
Sporic reproduction - sexual reproduction that alternates between a gamete-making individual and a sporemaking individual.
Gametophyte - the haploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces gametes by mitosis.
Sporophyte - the diploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces spores by meiosis.
Bryophyte - a small, non-vascular land plant; the formal name Bryophyta is reserved for the mosses, one group of bryophytes.
Gymnosperm - a vascular plant with non-enclosed seeds.
Angiosperm - a vascular plant with seeds enclosed in protective tissue.
Cone - a gymnosperm structure that contains male or female reproductive parts.
Flower - a collection of structures in angiosperms used for sexual reproduction.
Fruit - a mature ovary of a flower that protects and disperses dormant seeds.
sex chromosome - an X or Y chromosome, which determines the genetic sex of an organism autosome a chromosome that is not involved in determining the sex of an organism
homologous chromosome - a chromosome that contains the same sequence of genes as another chromosome
gene - a part of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait and is passed on to offspring; it has a specific DNA sequence
allele - a different form of the same gene
karyotype - a photograph of pairs of homologous chromosomes in a cell
spermatogenesis - the process of producing male gametes (sperm) in mammals
oogenesis - the process of producing female gametes (eggs) in mammals
crossing over - the exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes
non-disjunction - the failure of homologous chromosome pairs or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis
monosomy - the loss of a chromosome as a result of nondisjunction
trisomy - the gain of an extra chromosome as a result of nondisjunction
selective breeding - the process of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits
artificial insemination - the process by which sperm are collected and concentrated before being introduced into the female’s reproductive system
embryos transfer - the process by which an egg that has been fertilized artificially is transferred into a recipient female’s uterus.
in vitro fertilization - the technique used to fertilize egg cells outside the female’s body
cloning - a process that produces identical copies of genes, cells, or organisms
gene cloning - the use of DNA manipulation techniques to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA
recombinant DNA - a molecule of DNA that includes genetic material from different sources
stem cell - an undifferentiated cell that can develop and become specialized into different cell types of the body
therapeutic cloning - the process of replacing an egg cell’s nucleus with the nucleus from a somatic donor cell to produce a cell line of genetically identical cells
reproductive cloning - the process of producing genetically identical organisms
incomplete dominance - a condition in which neither allele for a gene completely conceals the presence of the other; it results in intermediate expression of a trait
codominance - the condition in which both alleles for a trait are equally expressed in a heterozygote; both alleles are dominant.
heterozygous advantage - a survival benefit for individuals who inherit two different alleles for the same trait
Dichotomous key
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Bacteria (Can survive extreme environments)
- a group of organisms that can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.
- separates bacteria and archaea, a biological (or chemical) process that.
- the branch of biology that deals with the structure or form of organisms.
- the evolutionary history of a species.
Binomial Nomenclature
Genus (plural genera)
- the branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species based on natural features.
- the system of giving a two-word Latin name to each species—the first part is the genus and the second part is the species.
a taxonomic group of a closely related species.
- the grouping of organisms based on a set of criteria that helps to organize and indicate evolutionary relationships.
Hierarchical Classification
Taxon (plural taxa)
- the method of classifying organisms in which species are arranged in categories from most general to most specific.
- a level in a classification scheme, such as phylum or order.
- a named group of organisms such as phylum Chordata or order Rodentia.
- an organism (or organisms) from which other groups of organisms are descended.
- the branch of biology that deals with structure and form, including internal systems.
- the branch of biology dealing with the physical and chemical functions of organisms, including internal processes.
Phylogenetic Tree
Structural Diversity
- a branching diagram used to show the evolutionary relationships among species.
- a type of biological diversity that is exhibited in the variety of structural forms in living things, from internal cell structure to body morphology.
- a smaller, simple type of cell that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus.
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is more closely related to a Red deer (Cervus elaphus) than it is to an Oryx (Oryx gazella).
- a larger, complex type of cell that does have a membrane-bound nucleus.